Q Report is about The nature and types of paradigms gives rise to the various types of concepts,theories and standard Home, - The nature and types of paradigms The nature and types of paradigms Introduction A paradigm is a set of thought patterns. In the field of science, paradigm gives rise to the various types of concepts, theories and the standard contribution methods in the research processes. All these features are shared among the scientists, and they take part in determining how the problems are understood. This helps in structuring even the address approach. These paradigms are varied, and they are categorized according to the following features; ontology, epistemology, axiology, rhetorical and the methodology applied. The ontology checks on what is the reality of the phenomena (Wilson, 2017). The epistemology is based on what one can know about a particular feature — the methodology checks on how one goes about finding out a specific aspect in research. Axiology entails what one values in the study. The rhetoric perspective involves assigning meaning to the various elements in the study. The variation in the above factors gives rise to the positivism, interpretivism, and postmodernism which is as discussed below. Post-Positivism This type of paradigm involves identification of reality by searching for a casual explanation to the phenomena that is usually patterned. The post positivists believe that some reality exists and there is a good reason to know it (Aliyu et al., 2014). An example is when one researches the performance of the children in a school. The present trends of student grades can be used to show how they can perform even at a future date. On the ontology perspective, there is a reality in the research. Given the necessary tools and applying scientific methods to study, this truth can be ascertained. There is epistemology as a valid tool can open up the facts about the occurrence under analysis. A precise methodology is laid to practice in the operations of a positivist to give the expected results. The method applied here is quantitative for example statistical analysis and use of focus group interviews. There is rhetoric in the positivism paradigm as the meaning is assigned to the various research tools by interpretation, for example, less production in crops may mean increased incidences of particular crop disease in the farm. In the axiological perspective, some values are applied in the research for example in a questionnaire only accurate analysis should be given for informed decision making. When conducting the interviews, the researcher should not be biased when collecting data. Interpretivism This involves a constructional reality which was not there in the first place. The researcher involved needs to clearly explain, describe and translate these facts in the research paper. The qualitative methods are applied when carrying out this research (Thanh & Thanh, 2015). An example if a mango fell from a tree when no one was nearby, a researcher can be asked to prove whether a sound was produced in this situation. An interpretive scholar may argue that there was no sound produced. He supports this by saying that sound involves traveling of waves from the source to the ears of the hearer. In the interpretive paradigm, there is no reality or truth in the ontology perspective. The fact, however, is created by the individuals in the group based on their knowledge skills and perception. In the epistemology aspect, the underlying fact about a phenomenon is there but requires the application of the necessary means to uncover the underlying concepts in the situation. In the axiology view, the interpretation of the occurrence lays basis on the fundamental values in which the involved parties are attached to. The same event may have varied meanings depending on the opinions of the interpretive researcher. The rhetorical nature of this paradigm involves assigning meaning to the various research aspects, for example, waking up late may show that one was excessively fatigued in the previous night. The qualitative methodologies are applied in this research. They may include the use of qualitative interviews, case studies, life history, action research and application of the theme identification. Postmodernism In this type, new and modern methods and are applied in the explanation of the various phenomena taking place in a certain area (Demand, 2016). The practical concepts in the day to day lives of the people as well as the present social, political and cultural patterns are used to analyze the various features obtained from the research. The ontology of the events is not known. In the epistemological view, the facts available can be identified, but that can be done by placing the situation under a scale of the present social and cultural beliefs. By axiology, there are fixed codes of conduct that are observed during the research and the technology necessary is also applied to enhance the credibility of the results. The meaning to the phenomena is assigned by comparing it with the present trends of operation. The critical methodology of the qualitative approach is used which sees the social and cultural reality as a result of a mutual construction between people in the world.