Q The organizational Review that perform well appreciate the role of teamwork, collaboration, cooperation, and diversity. Home, - Organizational Review Organizational Review Introduction In the current public sector, organizations and institutions that perform well appreciate the role of teamwork, collaboration, cooperation, and diversity. Notably, these principles are an important aspect of management and leadership. The leadership conception has gained significance in the recent past. Social science studies in this regard emphasize more on the aspect of effectiveness. Effective leaders are known to deliver desirable results and meet established institutional goals and objectives. They rely on viable decision making that ensures effective and timely action. Emergent research indicates that emotional intelligence is at the core of effective decision making. Goleman (2011) asserts that emotionally intelligent leaders attain desirable organizational outcomes and adapt effective decision making processes at all times. Conceptually, emotional intelligence constitutes an ability to identify, understand, and moderate emotions (Goleman, 2011). From a theoretical viewpoint, emotional intelligence competencies guide leadership behaviors and inform cognition. The resultant behavior has positive implications on the organizational climate. In essence, an open and healthy organizational climate influences employee performance positively. Employees in such environments exhibit a high degree of commitment to the organization’s mission and goals (Goleman, Boyatziz & MCKee, 2013). Their leaders approach critical concerns mindfully, identify possible mistakes and challenges early enough to avoid crises, refrain from over-simplification, and demonstrate resiliency when faced with challenges. Certainly, this form of leadership is enabling and empowering. Leaders are flexible and adopt primal leadership styles in varied situations. Effective application of these styles enhances performance of teams by increasing their productivity. Leaders that exercise emotional intelligence are stable and highly influential. Besides inspiring their followers and initiating action, they communicate and adapt effectively to dynamic environments. In addition, they are empathetic, supportive, and highly motivated. These important emotional intelligence competencies enable them to develop and nurture desirable leadership behavior at different levels within their organizations. Leaders with these abilities understand the nature of their emotions as well as the emotions of their employees, appreciate the implications of both negative and positive emotions to organizational wellbeing, and always take practical measures to manage disruptive emotions. This enables them to regulate their authority and power, adapt suitable decision making processes, and influence organizational climate positively. Just like other public sector organizations, institutions of learning acknowledge the fact that effective leadership influences educational performance. They consider such leadership to be balanced. This involves knowledge of why, how, and when things should be done within the school environment. As indicated earlier, emotional intelligence has positive impacts on leadership behavior. Just like in corporate settings, emotional intelligence influences improved performance in the academic sphere. In this regard, principals whose institutions perform well exercise emotional intelligence competencies at all levels. In these contexts, success is defined by the ability of students to achieve high grades. Principals of these institutions encourage development and sustenance of a positive climate. This strengthens relationships and supports learning. It is in this respect that this paper provides a detailed report of Edinburg Common School District in light of emotional intelligence and primal leadership. Understanding Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence is a complex conception that constitutes of four distinctive domains including self-awareness, social awareness, self-management, and relationship management (Goleman, 2011). Self-awareness enables individuals to understand the nature of their emotions and appreciate the implications that they have on their wellbeing. This implies that respective individuals are aware of their strengths as well as weaknesses. They appreciate their individual capacities and using this knowledge, they are able to perform well at all times. Self-management on the other hand equips individuals with skills and competencies to control their emotions effectively (Bradberry & Greaves, 2009). Leaders who have attained this desirable status are transparent and embrace honesty and integrity. The respective abilities are imperative for coping with obstacles and challenging situations. Self-management enables leaders to remain optimistic in the face of challenges too. Social awareness is akin to empathy and includes an ability to identify the emotions of other individuals, understand their differing points of view, and demonstrate interest in their perspectives. Leaders with this ability understand organizational trends and acknowledge decision making networks. In addition, they interact with the clients at different levels, appreciate their needs, and commit to meeting the desires of their followers. With respect to relationship management, leaders assume the responsibility of motivating their followers and using the organizational vision to guide them appropriately. The leaders utilize various strategies to persuade them to work towards achieving desirable goals. In such cases, leaders act as change agents that initiate, manage, and lead followers in new directions. Besides enhancing organizational growth and development, this ability cultivates meaningful relationships, nurtures team building and fosters cooperation (Bradnerry & Greaves, 2009). Emotional Intelligence in Edinburg Common School District In this particular institution of learning, the school principal and teachers demonstrate high level emotional intelligent competencies at all times. Fundamentally, institutional leadership has positive implications on the performance of the students as well as teachers. Just like leaders in other sectors, the principal of this institution is highly influential. Indirectly, his behavior impacts the performance of both educators and students. His mode of conduct affects the actions, decisions, and behaviors that these groups assume at all times. Specifically, it enhances teacher motivation and shapes the school climate. The school principal is responsible for formulation, enforcement and implementation of decisions at different levels. He engages in various activities that demonstrate effective application of emotional intelligence competencies. In this school district, the principal acknowledges the importance of effective communication. In this regard, he has established a two way communication between his office and the teachers. Besides asking questions, he is truthful and encourages feedback from the teachers, students, and the community at large. This could not have been attained without strong relationships. In this respect, the principal takes practical steps to establish quality relationships with the teachers and members of the community. He holds interactive meetings with each facet at least once a week. These forums allow for generation of important information that is then employed in critical decision making. Regular interaction also enhances information sharing between these stakeholders. This gives him a chance to understand the ideas of the teachers and incorporate them in decision making. Also, the principal demonstrates effective communication skills through reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The competencies enable him to relay important information with ease. He communicates to staffs, parents and students effectively through written text. Additionally, the principal acknowledges the role that all groups play in effective learning. He takes measures to listen to their ideas and employ the same in problem solving. At this point, it is worth noting that due to the diverse nature of the school population, conflicts often occur due to differing values and belief systems. In such instances, the principal applies effective communication skills and flexibility to address the concerns accordingly. In this context, he deals with different emotional states of excited students, rebellious staffs, and or irritated parents. He uses his communication skills to inform parents about the administrative and academic decisions firmly. Using these skills, he has been able to endorse the school vision to the parents and staffs successfully. By communicating objectives clearly, he encourages the staffs to cooperate towards achieving them. The fact that the school principal acts as a change agent in this institution is indisputable. In his review, Goleman (2011) indicates that effective leaders assume the responsibility of challenging the status quo. Usually, there are certain practices in learning institutions that are left unchallenged for decades. In light of transformational leadership, challenging the status quo is an important aspect of total quality management. The principal demonstrates a willingness to upset the school routine and introduce other practices that aim at enhancing performance. In pursuit of these initiatives, it is widely agreed that change agents face innumerable conflicts. These situations give them an opportunity to address complex issues in ways that enhance the level of commitment of their staffs to institutional goals. Such leaders are effective decision makers who are confident about experimenting models and taking risks. In this respect, the school principal changed the homework policy that had been used for a significant twelve years. From his point of view, this was counterproductive and was having negative effects on student performance. During weekly meetings with the teachers, he challenges them not to get comfortable with routine. He encourages them to explore other approaches and instructional methods that could have positive impacts on learning. This enhances their level of creativity and improves performance. Further, he has implemented a new reading program that he considers would improve the literacy levels of the students. Although this faced various challenges during the initial stages, he was persistent and wishes to experiment it for at least two consecutive years before he can determine its effectiveness. In the current academic sphere, learning institutions face the challenge of optimizing performance at all times. School principals are held responsible for academic achievement by various stakeholders. As an effective school leader, the principal of this institution exercises optimism at all times. McKee, Boyatzis and Johnston (2008) indicate that usually, organizational leaders set the tone in their respective organizations. In the school environment, emotions of school leaders influence the decisions and practices that staffs assume at all times. Undoubtedly, optimism and energy enhances effective change management within the institutions. By setting a positive emotional tone at all times, the school principal has been successful in encouraging innovation and creativity. In this case, the principal of the institution disseminates important research findings regarding improvement of academic standards to teachers. He challenges them to incorporate idyllic practices in their instructional methods. He also informs them that he is aware that the implementation process is likely to be problematic. However, he assures them that he would be willing to provide support whenever need arises. The positive tone encourages teachers to commit themselves to implementing the new strategies. Using creativity, they come up with viable options with which they use to address emergent problems. The school principal also acknowledges the accomplishments as well as failures of the staffs and teachers. According to Khalili (2013), this is an important component of transactional leadership. In this respect, he is responsible for accounting for the successes and failures of his institution. Ideally, it is often easy for leaders to identify the successes and positive aspects of performance. Regardless of this recognition, the school principal identifies the failures of the institutions and communicates these to the staffs accordingly. He awards the efforts of the teachers who exhibit exemplary performance at the end of every examination period. In addition, he rewards the students who perform well by organizing tours to different destinations. This encourages them to uphold optimal performance at all times. In addition, he reports on students achievements every quarter and announces teachers who make efforts to decrease referral cases. This recognition has positive impacts on the morale of the educators. It motivates them to continue working hard to improve performance. By identifying the students with dismal performance, the principal takes such an opportunity to encourage them and provide viable options with which they can improve performance. Flexibility is an important aspect of relationship management that the principal of this institution holds in high regard. From a theoretical viewpoint, this is consistent with the provisions of the transformational model of leadership. Bradberry and Greaves (2009) posit that flexible leaders are adaptable to changing situations. They acknowledge diverse opinions and encourage individual initiative. Usually, they switch between different leadership styles and adopt approaches that are best suited for a particular scenario. Put differently, they customize their leadership strategies to accommodate specific situations. The principal demonstrates flexible leadership in different situations. For instance, although he is not expected to interfere with decision making at the faculty level, he often intervenes whenever staff members fail to make decisions in an effective and timely manner. This is particularly so when the laxity has far reaching implications on academic achievement. At one point, the principal refrained from giving his individual opinion regarding the implementation of the textbook policy. Arguably, he wanted the teachers to assume responsibility for the project because they had sufficient capacities. The principal of this institution participates actively in developing a desirable culture that impacts positively on staff and student performance. In this regard, he goes to great lengths to foster cooperation and a sense of community amongst students and teachers. Besides emphasizing on harmonic coexistence, he promotes a sense of wellbeing, and develops understanding and a shared vision with respect to an ideal institution of learning. During the staff meetings, the principal praises teachers who collaborate in performing complex tasks. In addition, he holds lectures with students and teachers to discuss the meaning and importance of the school mission every month. These forums enable participants to identify ways through which they can align their individual and professional goals to the institutional mission. In their research, McKee et al (2008) indicate that a school culture is unique to every institution and constitutes of feelings, beliefs, and values that both teachers and students hold in high regard. The culture emphasizes on areas of importance and challenges them to strive to achieve goals by aligning their behaviors and practices in a certain distinctive direction. Basically, the school culture tends to be invisible. Nonetheless, it is symbolic and reflects certain cultural priorities that the institution values. As a way of understanding the organization, the principal contributes to development of the curriculum, instruction and process of assessment. Although he is an administrator, he concerns himself with understanding the content of the curriculum. This knowledge enables him to understand the experiences and challenges that teachers struggle with. This way, he is able to address them effectively. Specifically, the principal participates in designing curricular activities and helping teachers to address issues pertaining to assessment. In addition, he helps teachers to address wide ranging instructional concerns that have diverse impacts on their performance. Besides scheduling meetings to discuss with teachers about the implications of test scores on performance, he participates in devising viable ways through which these tests can be improved. In this way, he makes notable contributions on the wellbeing of the institutions. Inherent participation exposes him to the challenges that the teachers and students encounter at different levels. As indicated earlier, this builds his capacities in this regard and enables him to address them effectively. Besides involving himself in curriculum development, the principal takes practical steps to acquire knowledge regarding the current trends and advances in assessment, curriculum and instruction. Thus, he meets monthly with other administrators to share this knowledge and identify ways through which his institution can benefit from this knowledge base. In addition, he reads widely about the current trends in the educational sector and instructional methods that are most rewarding. With this knowledge, he is in the best position to formulate objective and effective educational policies. Also, the school principal attends educational workshops, seminars and conferences. Besides interacting with administrators from different regions and exchanging information regarding their experiences and challenges, these platforms are educative and allow for networking. In his research, Goleman (2011) posits that leaders use their emotional intelligence to establish and sustain strong bonds within the organization. The strong relationships enable them to face challenges with ease. They cushion them against the negative effects of social, economic and institutional shocks. These strong relations also help them to face challenges that stem from the change processes with ease. It is widely agreed that professional relationships enhance successful execution of individual as well as group roles and responsibilities. In school contexts, effective leaders are always aware of the personal lives of their staffs and teachers. Using face to face interactions, the principal encourages development and strengthening of relationships between teachers and students. This enables the staffs to remain focused on institutional goals and objectives in times of uncertainty. In an effort to build and maintain positive relationships, the principal organizes birthday parties for teachers. In addition he attends ceremonies concerning important life events of the staffs. These include weddings and burials of their relatives. Furthermore, the principal makes efforts to maintain a personal relationship with each of the staffs. In this regard, he spares time to talk to them and find out about their experiences and progress. This enables them to feel appreciated and thus participate actively in institutional development. According to Bradberry and Greaves (2009), it is a sustainable approach of making staffs to feel that they are active stakeholders in institutional functioning. Essentially, it ascertains that the principal is concerned about the wellbeing of the staffs and appreciates the contributions that they make to the success of the institution. Primal Leadership Conception With reference to emotional competence, effective school leaders motivate and inspire their followers. They arouse the commitment of groups to achieving organizational goals and objectives. In his research, Goleman et al (2013) underscores six types of leadership styles whose effective application can enable learning institutions to meet their goals. Managers who adopt coercive leadership style impose their decisions on the employees. They are dictatorial and conditional in nature. Usually, this type of leadership is effective in organizations with a huge pool of personnel. Thus, defiant employees can be replaced easily without impacting negatively on the performance of the organization. According to McKee (2008), this form of leadership is also effective in times of emergencies. Organizational leadership gives clear instructions during these times regarding the course of action that employees need to assume. This alleviates fears and enhances effective performance during such times. However, continued use during normal times impacts negatively on the organizational climate. This compromises performance by straining relationships. Visionary school leaders focus more on bringing their staffs together in pursuit of a common institutional goal. According to Goleman (2011), the environment and organizational climate that they create during such processes are positive and supportive of growth and development. Ideally, this type of leadership is suitable in instances when organizations are adopting new visions or changing direction. In essence, this occurs during implementation of new policies and educational programs. The initiatives trigger enthusiasm amongst employees and enable them to work towards achieving the new vision. Goleman et al (2013) cites that coaching aims at aligning the objectives and goals of the staffs and employees to organizational goals. Just like visionary leadership, relative efforts have positive implications on workplace environment. It enables leaders to benefit fully from employee competencies. Coaching allows for skill development and sharpens the competencies of the staffs in their respective fields of specification. This enhances their performance and optimizes output. In his review, Goleman et al (2013) defines affiliative leadership as one that emphasizes on teamwork. Its strategies enhance relationships amongst employees and strengthen the bonds that staffs share. Put differently, it connects individuals within the organization to one another. Likewise, it impacts positively on the organizational climate. It discourages conflicts that have far reaching implications on the performance of organizations. During challenging and stressful situations, it encourages employees to employ relative approaches. This enables them to face the problems boldly and overcome challenges with ease. The authoritative leadership style allows organizational managers to control all operations accordingly. In such instances, leaders have a clear understanding of the vision of the organization and assume the responsibility of communicating it to the subordinates. Khalili (2013) indicates that this leadership style mandates managers to take corrective measures during challenges. In his comprehensive review, Goleman et al (2013) indicates that democratic leaders value the contributions of employees to the wellbeing of an organization. The strategies and approaches that leaders assume encourage participation of all employees in critical decision making. Although all perceptions may not be included in the final decision making process, inherent participation makes employees feel valued and worthwhile. In instances of conflicts, this style of leadership allows for consensus and thus helps resolve the issues. Furthermore, the contributions that the employees make influence organizational performance positively. They broaden the knowledge base of the organization and provide insightful alternative resolutions to emergent challenges. Primal Leadership in Edinburg Common School District Generally, leadership is an important aspect of this institution. As indicated earlier, effective leadership enhances student achievement and attainment of institutional goals. The principal of this institution emphasizes on upholding viable leadership at all times. Thus, he employs participative approaches. In addition to the democratic style, he uses affiliative approach to mobilize and explore available resources and develop and sustain relationships, visionary leadership to meet the established goals, and coaching approach to build the capacities of the teachers. The coercive and commanding leadership styles are counterproductive and as such, they are seldom used. In most instances, they are only employed during emergencies. In an effort to uphold visionary leadership, the principal embraces the value of focus. In his review, McKee et al (2008) indicates that focus is important in enabling leaders to sustain progress towards achievement of important institutional goals. A fragmented approach to goal implementation undermines the ability of educational institutions to implement goals with ease. In order to avoid related failure, the school leader establishes clear goals and takes measures to sustain continued commitment to achieving them. Besides enhancing the performance of the institution, focus prevents resource wastage. The principal exhibits high level tenacity when pursuing performance based goals. He exercises accountability with regard to accomplishments and failures. Together with other stakeholders, he sets clear goals for instruction, curriculum and assessment. In addition, he formulates goals and objectives that guide institutional functioning. He maintains a high degree of attention in an effort to ensure that the entire goals are met accordingly. One of the visionary goals that guide instruction in this institution pertains to the need for the institution to have aligned its curriculum to important state standards by the end of the year. Besides setting the goal, the principal keeps reminding the teachers about its status and progress during frequent meetings. The principal demonstrates the coaching strategies through intellectual stimulation. In this respect, he ensures that staffs and members of faculties are conversant with important and current models and practices of effective schooling. He holds regular discussions regarding the concept and importance of the respective theories with the staffs. According to McKee et al (2008), intellectual stimulation refers to the extent to which the principal engages teachers in meaningful discussions and dialogues regarding theory and research. In addition to building capacities of the educators in the field of schooling, the practice enables them to deal with the challenges of the dynamic environment. Essentially, it improves their adaptability to various situations. A classic illustration of how the principal achieves this goal pertains to his hiring of speakers to inform his staff about the economic trends and their implications on the job market. During this session, he asks the staffs to identify important ways though which they can prepare students well and equip them with sufficient skills and knowledge to cope with the trends in future. Employment of democratic leadership in this institution also yields desirable outcomes. The participative nature of the approach allows teachers to assume governance and administrative roles too. It ensures teachers engage in decision making, promotes collaboration and peaceful existence, and enhances their commitment to achieving both institutional and individual goals and objectives. According to Khalili (2013), this ultimately boosts teacher as well as student productivity. This mode of leadership encourages teachers to assume responsibility and act independently both as individuals as well as groups. The principal appoints competent individuals to head the faculties and departments. They have sufficient expertise and understand the complex needs of the respective department. These are in charge and lead groups during decision making. They then report to the principal after making the decision. In such sessions, these teachers also act as coaches. This is because they have specialized expertise and understand the respective fields better than their colleagues. In this institution, educators assume a contractual responsibility for school administration too. The decision in this respect was based on the premise that teaching and administration are inseparable responsibilities. The principal ensures that all instructors have some leadership responsibilities within the institution. As indicated earlier, the principal refrains from making decisions individually. He organizes teacher assembly meetings every week and requires mandatory participation. During these sessions, teachers engage in formulation of policies that guide education practices in the institution. During the first assembly meeting each year, members of the faculty distribute important administrative responsibilities. The leadership roles of the faculties are reassigned on a yearly basis. This allows all members of the faculty to assume administrative responsibilities at some point in time. The roles are wide and varied and include undertaking statistical data analyses, planning for teacher schedules, making orders for textbooks and ensuring their distribution maintaining of student records, and computerizing school records amongst others. The school principal ensures effective instruction, professionalism, and punctuality at all times. In addition, the ministry appoints external counselors who assist the principal in monitoring. In this respect, they make regular visits to the school and observe teachers during instruction. They then recommend star performers and report on unacceptable behavior. In instances where the teachers’ instruction and pedagogical skills are limited, the principal seeks for external intervention. By encouraging students to give feedback, the principal plays a leading role in enhancing the capacities of teachers. Usually, he organizes meetings with students every month. In these sessions, the students raise complaints regarding teacher performance. The issues are resolved jointly and students are allowed to make contributions with respect to improving the performance of their instructors. At this point, it cannot be disputed that the democratic model benefits the school in different ways. Besides freeing the principal of certain responsibilities, it enhances participation and accountability amongst teachers. It motivates students to assume the responsibility of ensuring that they attain quality education. Most importantly, it allows for effective decision making. This helps in reducing conflicts and boosts the productivity of all personnel. Also, the principal acknowledges the role of relationships in enhancing performance in the institution. According to McKee (2008), beneficial relationships cushion the institution against the various negative implications that the society faces. The principal undertakes various measures to initiate and sustain strong mutual relationships with all the stakeholders. To begin with, he collects and analyzes information and data pertaining to the educational environment. This ensures that all the decision he makes are objective and based on informed thought. The principal recognizes that the institution is situated in a culturally diverse environment. For this reason, he ensures that the needs and interest of all groups are addressed accordingly. Using the community’s social and intellectual resources, he promotes understanding as well as appreciation of the diverse cultures. This contributes to harmonic coexistence and provision of an environment that is supportive of learning. As aforementioned, the community has a host of material, financial, and human resources that the institution can benefit from. Establishing desirable relationships enables the school to tap from the resources and use them for development. This is a sustainable approach of appreciating the contribution of the community to institutional growth. The resultant feeling of ownership increases the commitment of the community to ensuring the school meets its goals. Just like other organizations, Goleman (2011) indicates that schools are social institutions that cannot operate independently. The institution has various stakeholders that contribute in different ways to its wellbeing. In addition to maintaining close ties with the local population, the principal ensures that the institution partners with other organizations such as the police, civic groups, local government officials, fire departments, and so forth. Just like the teachers, the activities of all stakeholders influence the performance and general wellbeing of students. By ensuring that the institution complies with state and district mandates at all times, the principal prevents conflicts that stem from non-compliance. Also, the principal assumes the advocacy role at all times. By providing sufficient and relevant resources for the teachers, the principal assumes the professional and ethical responsibility of school leadership. In their study, Bradberry and Greaves (2009) indicate that effective leaders mobilize institutional resources in such a manner that they are able to respond to emergent threats and opportunities with ease. In addition to materials and books, resources at this institutional level include space, time, equipment, expertise, and ideas. The principal of this institution acknowledges the importance of competencies in teacher performance. Thus, he ensures that teachers have the skills and knowledge that they require to undertake instruction and execute other duties effectively. He offers them opportunities for professional development by providing sufficient and up to date educational materials and necessary equipment. During the regular meetings, he asks teachers about their professional needs and encourages them to suggest ways through which these can be addressed. Moreover, he invites trainers to address the weak areas of teachers that undermine their performance and professional growth. Conclusion The current corporate environment requires leaders to exercise high level competencies at all times. The behaviors, actions, and decisions that they take influence the performance of their organizations directly. Emotional intelligence competencies enable leaders of learning institutions to understand to understand their emotional states as well as the mental states of others and take measures to control negative impulses. The knowledge makes them to appreciate the contribution that their subordinates make to the wellbeing of the institution. Inherent objectivity helps them to develop and sustain viable relationships at all times. Effective leadership on the other hand mandates them to employ primal leadership styles. Their ability to exercise flexibility enhances their adaptability in times of change. In this respect, they are able to mobilize resources and respond to both threats and opportunities with ease. In addition, they make efforts to improve the capacities of their subordinates in an effort to enhance performance. Most importantly, they allow their staffs, students and other stakeholders to participate actively in critical decision making.