Q Review of Any town Historical Timeline- Investigations about the State Of Emergency Management in the Nation Home, - Review of Any town Historical Timeline Review of Any town Historical Timeline Investigations about the State Of Emergency Management in the Nation PART 1: In any country, there is a need for the management plans in case any unforeseen contingencies materialises. This is because without the presence of this effective plans in existence, there occurs losses in huge amount where it becomes very difficult and time consuming to restore the process of the business and community like before. In the country of United States, there has been established an Office for the Management of Emergency popularly known as Emergency Management Office (EMO). This has been established in certain areas which is vested with the responsibility of planning a comprehensive approach wherein the recovery from any kind of disasters can be done at a pre-planned way. The bombing of World Trade Centre in the year 1993 and the Murrah Federal Building in 1995, impacted the country in a very disastrous way as because the fact that the major commercial centres that effects the economic condition of a country majorly is impacted by the attacks of terrorists. All these led to bring an answer to the question were in the vulnerabilities that are persistent in nature were clearly visible. There are other areas which are vulnerable to attacks that are not only because of the man-made attacks but are also affected because of the natural disaster viz. the hurricanes. All these disasters which constituted of both the man-made and the natural disasters contributed towards formation of plans and policies in actions so that the effect of the disasters can be minimized. All these events and incidents led a major impact while the legislation was being prepared, mitigated, response and the recovery in the United States. An agency was also formed popularly known as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This was also formed to respond to the disasters caused by both the man-made and natural activity. The aim of the agency is to assist the efforts of recovery from the situation of emergency. There is requirement of response in complex nature in cases where the disasters occur irrespective of its kind. The same is required across multiple government agencies and elements of the private sector including media. All the factors in relation to the management of emergencies requires to have structure of responses in place wherein the plan in relation to the same is in place in advance, which can get activated at a very short notice of time. The structure should have the responsibilities clearly identified and laid so that there is coordination which will ultimately help in bringing the situation under control. The effective response needs framing of multiple plans that can be used as alternative under various circumstances in order to meet the situation of emergency effectively. The countries now have developed plans for the management of safety by way of having proposal and plans that can be adopted alternatively at the earliest to reduce the effects of the same. Had this been in place earlier, the effects of the emergency that occurred in 1993 due to bombing of the World Trade Centre would have been reduced. Therefore, post this and post the bombing again in the year 1995, the United States regulators and federations felt the need of adopting and framing plans and proposals where in case of disaster being of any nature, the recovery from the same can if not fastened, can at least be speedy as compared to the current market situation. Emergencies in any case causes a threats to health of the human that are serious in nature and involves the safety of the public. The mechanism where in the emergency management is focussed deals with the measures and methods where the effects of the same can be reduced and measures involving the restoration of the same to the pre-disaster period can be achieved with less effects. The global is effected overall wherein any emergencies arises. Therefore, we see and can assess the fact that management of emergency is very essential for the management of the security of any country and from protecting from huge losses in case any emergency and unforeseen contingencies materialises. The preparation of disaster includes having multiple plan of action in place that should have different approaches in case of different emergencies, so that the best plan that suits the case of emergency is activated thereby causing relieve in the country and thereby having the fact that the losses can be reduced with the help of the regulators of the country. Moreover, there is a need of formation of a united agency for the safety and security and for meeting conditions of emergencies, that can again come together for all the countries in case of any emergencies and contingencies. PART 2: 1. The emergencies and disasters that occurred before any emergency management plan in action had results which had very much negative impact on the country, whereas, the disasters post the implementation of the measures of the emergency management, have a very different impact from that of the earlier one as because the plans for the reduction of the effects was in place. The way of handling of the after effects of the Hurricane Sandy was very different and more appropriate then it was in the case of Hurricane Katrina. This is because of the fact, that the lessons learned because of absence of the effective management of emergency in case of Hurricane Katrina was placed into a policy and plan of safety measures by the time Hurricane Sandy hit the country. The lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina which were major were the fact that organizations did not had recovery plans out of the destruction, thereby leading to the losses being very huge in numbers as compared to Hurricane Sandy. The improved practices can be observed from the fact that because of the disaster recovery plans in action, the reassessment of the organization from the disaster can be done with ease. There was improved solutions being creative in nature for addressing the contingencies like Hurricane Sandy, thereby reducing the losses out of it. After the Hurricane Katrina, the institutions were well prepared for the threats being foreseeable across all the levels. The lessons learned and worked upon from the Hurricane Katrina involved the firms to be realistic and the drills of disasters should include all the functional areas that are critical in nature. 2. The country even after having measurements wherein there is management of the emergency situations have still many areas which requires attention as there exists vulnerabilities that will affect the country, its economic condition and the firm operating in the same adversely. The gains that have actually been made in the various dimensions since 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina were not very effective as because the effects of the disasters caused by Hurricane Katrina were not able to be reduced because of the lack of effective plan in action. The United States is vulnerable to many disasters even after having emergency management plans in action as because the natural disasters which are not man made occurs there at large extent. The fact behind the natural disasters like hurricanes is because the large population of the United States, lives in those parts of the country that are mainly areas of coast, which are prone to damages because of hurricanes hitting the coasts that are populated. The measures and actions that should be adopted for meeting with the vulnerabilities should be such that the population of the United States should be tried and shifted to other areas which will contribute towards less occurrence of the Hurricane in the coastal areas of United States. There is a need of working together with alignment in the objectives of the agencies of government, organizations and the management system of emergencies together. This will help in the attainment of seamless response for emergencies being major in nature and situations that are disastrous. 3. The responsibility of the Emergency Responder is very vital as because he is responsible for responding to an incident having nature of emergency, including natural disasters or intervention and interruption in the operations of the businesses. The presence of the emergency responder is in all kinds of organizations and sometimes some normal employee acts as the same. The emergency responder undergoes special trainings so as to meet the situations of emergency. The responsibilities are adopting of protective measures, notifying the supervisors, advising the treats that are possible, initiating the process of evacuation and removing of the sources that have potential ignition. The duty of the responders is to activate the team which is required to act in case of emergency situations. The priorities of the emergency responder includes evaluation of the updates of the incident, communication, decisions made should be strategic and the level of management of the emergency should be full with tactics. All these together and combined contributes towards the execution of the plan of the emergency in the manner as planned so that the effects of the same can be reduced. The responsibilities of the responder includes responding to the situations that have disturbed the operation of the organization and helping in evacuation so that the injuries and the other harmful effects can be minimized. Moreover, there is a need to communicate the same to the higher authorities for the next step as defined while framing and drafting the plans.