This assignment is about Culture, Transculturation & Media Culture factors that affect Cuban Americans behaviours

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Culture, Transculturation & Media Culture


Culture is a very interesting subject. It includes the whole heritage of a society. This simply means it’s the backbone of the morals, traditions, habits, religion, art, languages as well as social systems. Is simpler terms, it can simply be broken down as the values, beliefs, artifacts, attitudes, as well as other important symbols that are characterized in pattern of a life that is taken up by a certain group of people. It helps them interpret it as well as acting as an avenue for effective communication in the society.

Additionally, culture is a collective mental indoctrination of the people in a certain environment. It’s certainly not a distinguishing of an individual. However, it entails a number of people who are trained by the same education and life know-hows (Lohmeier, 2014).

Culture can be said to have a few layers to it. These ultimately include, gender, generation, national, social class, organization or corporate and regional and/linguistic and/ ethnic and/ or linguistic aspects to it.

To make it really what it is, a culture must have a few characteristics. Importantly, one should know that culture is learned. It is not inherited. Moreover, culture usually changes over a period of time. However, one should not that the rate of change is very slow and never happens overnight (Ceresa, 2017).

People’s different cultures often have a manifestation. These are things that they pride themselves with or what shows their identity. First of all a culture has symbols. These are normally words, gestures, and pictures. Also, objects that have a certain importance that is recognized by only those who share it. Secondly, there are heroes. These are individuals whether dead or alive, real or imaginary, who have attributes that are highly priced in a society and therefore act as role models for behaviour. Thirdly there are always rituals of that particular culture. These are collective activities that are considered socially important within a culture. These and so many more factors distinguish a culture. The cultural meaning of symbols, rituals, and heroes are side by the “insiders” of a culture in an almost automatic way. It’s almost subconscious (Ceresa, 2017). .

Additionally, a culture always has its known or accepted values. A value can simply be defined as a continuing belief that one mode of conduct or end-state of presence is chosen to a different mode or end-state of existence. Marketers are usually interested in values because people use values as a point of making choices. Values are just beliefs about the wanted goals in life and products and are a means of reaching these goals.


                Transculturation is thee process through which elements are altered a through a new, composite and complex reality is the end product. It forms a reality that is no mechanical mixture of neither character nor mosaic, but in its place, a new and authentic and independent phenomenon. Through local and global interactions, this process is born.

Since these global processes are dynamic, we can now easily see how relationships became increasingly transnational. This led to the term transcultural. It simply describes the complex interaction that has been faced by people of different cultures that share the same space. Transculturation does not mean that one culture simply cedes its ways; instead, both retain a modified version of their identities. This is done by reinterpreting aspects that have been seen from the other group and assimilating it (Lohmeier, 2014).


                Identity can simply be defined as an abstract concept. It simply captures a particular mixture of both the commonplace and well as compound characteristics of a person’s know-how.

                Identity is said to be multi-faceted. This simply means that together things appear as small like a grain of salt or as big as a hurricane. However, they both have the same effect in the creation of identity. At times, identity comes into being because of the up-down direction. It simply means that the definition comes from the people at the top. Sometimes, the motion is exchanged and fixed by the collective activities of the normal masses. The force that describes identity is historical as well as contemporary. An identity differentiates you from other people. Each individual has his own identity that is noticeable by the others (Garci´a, 1996).


                All if not all human societies have known religions. From the earliest societies that are found on record, there are traces of the practice. Therefore, in the entire history religion has been a focal point. It has shaped many human experiences. Additionally it has made different people to act differently.

Role of Religion in Society

                Culture an peace are among the most important elements for a culture to exist. They are the backbone for social justice. In cases where there is injustice, there is increased non-corporation, civil unrest, discontent, and even war. Religion has a powerful part to play in shaping ideas of social justice as well as legitimacy. It responds to the perceptions of injustices and illegitimacy.

                Religion has played a very big role in conflict and war resolution. We have to look at the current and past wars to be able to notice the differences it has brought about. Religion plays an indirect and interactive role in conflict dynamics. Additionally, it has contributed greatly to the growth of more than just humane and ecological responsibilities in the society.

For many people, religion gives them answers to the nagging questions in life. Religion gives a way forward on how one can relate to their fears, desires as well as worries.

Apart from giving them comfort, religion gives people an avenues that have resigned At the exact time, based on this knowledge it avails a structure of norms on how people can conduct themselves daily. The comprehensiveness of this system relies on whether an individual is referring to a global religion indigenous. In short, many people assume religion to plug the gap that is found between man as well as other forms of life (Garci´a, 1996). .

                Regular practice of religion is essential for personal physical health. Apart from increasing the chances of one from healing fast, it increases longevity and reduces incidences of many killer diseases.

                In repairing the damages that come about due to drug addiction, alcoholism as well as marital breakdowns, religion is a primary source of recovery and strength.

                Additionally, the continued religious practices encourage beneficial aspects such as mental health as there is less depression. This is one of the modern day epidemics. Moreover, it improves self-esteem as well as greater family and marital happiness. Regular religious practices contribute to formation of personal moral criteria against a host of social problems. For example; suicide, crime, drug abuse and divorce. 

                The evidence found vividly show that normal religious practices are both an discrete as well as a social virtue. It offers an authoritative avenue to countless of the most substantial problems in the social setting.  Additionally, it is available to all and at no cost.

Role of Religion in Cuban Culture

                Majority of Cubans are Roman Catholics. However, Afro-Cuban religions are very common among them. This is a blend of the native African religions accompanied by Roman Catholicism. This was mainly influenced by the arrival of missionaries in the 15th and 16th centuries which also coincided with the Trans-Atlantic slave trade.

                One of the most important features of religion to Cuban is that it plays a powerful role in history. it carries the symbols, archetypes, stories and worldviews through which it shapes their identity. Moreover, it deals with problems of injustices and suffering. It also develops a code of morality which helps most of them to meet the requirements of community life (Garci´a, 1996). .

                In the Cuban culture, religion not only comforts them as they struggle through life but also controls the excesses of civilization. Attempts like that to change the instruments of life are being driven by improvements in technology as well as man’s greed. This goes on even though the potential future impact is not yet clear.

                On a big scale, ecological issues have been assumed for many years. This is despite several warnings from scientists that the problem is bigger than people imagine. This is because most of these problems were never felt. This has led to the many crises that feel today.

                All these issues involve the need to control human greed as well as desire. This is an important task for any religion.

                In the modern world, religion has to confront so many issues that have cropped up and are playing a huge part in the day to day activities. The point of reference for me would be Afro-Cuban religion in Miami.

On issue that is nagging that many religions have failed to keep up with is modern civilization. The opening between other forms of life and man that it is addressing is what existed about a century ago. This is mostly true in many other religions too. The recent case being that of Galileo whose “heresy” was recently rescinded.

                Through their extensive networks, institutions (like schools, hospitals, universities, social service centers) as well as worldwide memberships. The Cuban religions engage in thousands of them at the local as well as global level. Additionally, they have a major impact on economic, political, and social policy amendments (Lohmeier, 2014).

                Given the importance of religion to Cubans, it would be hard to set up a culture of peace without including religions as well as the symbols and meanings they hold to them. They have so much power and networks are interconnected wherever they go. Religion plays a huge role in solving so many issues that plague any society.


Traditionally, Cubans have been hard workers. From their ancestral areas they have maintained their culture of hard work. Work within their culture is broken down according to genders. Since long a long ago, women have been considered as the homemakers and men have been seen to provide for the family. In the last few years, women’s role in the Cuban society has grown drastically. Moreover, many more are joining the university education. This has helped them to move to professionals that were initially lead by men. Young and women who are not married have turned out to be really independent and are moving all over to search for work in different sectors (Blanco, 2014).

However, many of the Cuban work in the informal sector. They are being used in many areas such as casual labourers in many industries around Miami. This has led them to acquiring many skills that have led to some of them being self-dependant.

Even though the gap between the employed and the unemployed women is reducing there are still a large percentage of them that are unemployed and mainly depend on their family members. In this case, most of the men are the providers and are expected to bring to the table a lot of the basic needs.

Social Media

                Social media plays a very huge part in the modern world. The use these mediums have also been on the increase with the people of Cuban origin that stay in Miami. Most use them just like any other person. There are those that use it for entertainment, business, communication and much more.

                There have been various conferences that were held in Miami, (a good example is the Cuba Internet Freedom) that have shaped and made its use very popular. The aim of such events is to bring together independent journalists, Cubans and digital innovators as well as personalities who want to spread it both in Miami as well as the Cuban country itself.

 Through social media, the Cubans are able to exchange ideas, explore best practices, examine the current state of the internet use in ways that can efficiently help them to grown as individuals and the community in general (Lohmeier, 2014).

                Additionally, through the use of social media, the Cubans can show as well as spread their culture. Through this, they can be able to show the world in general what they are good at and some of their best practices.

                There are also programs that they can watch and get to know more about their culture. This is especially the young ones who have no recollection of where their parents or grandparents came from. With the use of the internet, they are able to know more. This helps in diversifying their culture in general.


                The Cuban relationship in Miami is totally dissimilar in many ways from the Cuban one. A Cuban relationship is often regarded as patriarchy. It has strong control from the parents. Additionally, there is strong emphasis on non-nuclear relationships. This is for the nuclear families. In Miami, these fundamentals have lost a little meaning among families of Cuban descent. A good example is the the Cuban tradition of picking a godparent for a kid. They will maintain a strong and quasi-parental relationship with the child has started to reduce in the United States (Garci´a, 1996).

                In families, men and women tend to share parenting as well as household responsibilities. This is very common in the urban areas where more women are likely to work outside the home in the cities. However, in some cases, the women are usually homemakers and tend to be more obvious even though they both share labour in support of the other (Garci´a, 1996).

                There is a great number of Cubans who have intermarried with the locals in Miami. This has greatly led to them being deeply submerged into the American society. However, many of them have retained their identity although to some level.

                Additionally, Cuban American ladies are at least expected to have more powers in the family as compared to Cuba. This is greatly influenced by workforce participation of Cuban American women. Moreover, children in an American Cuban setting have more freedom than in Cuba. For example, in Cuba, kids always have an adult chaperon when dating. In the US they easily go out unaccompanied  (Pando, 1998).

                Moreover, there are great changes in the patter of marriage as well as the bearing of children in Miami. Americans of Cuban heritage raised in Miami have started to leave the old-fashioned Cuban familial patterns. 63% of the foreign born Cuban Americans over the age of 18 are married. It’s only a small percentage of 38% are married. Also, 50% of the US born Cubans are single. This is in comparison with the 10.7% of Cuban Americans born in Cuba. Nonetheless, Cubans born in the United States have a very low chance of becoming parents compared to Cubans born abroad (Garci´a, 1996).

                Lastly, close to 30% of native born Cuban Americans who have decided to marry, have married the Anglo-American ones, this is 3.6% compared to Cuban-born Americans (Levine & Asi´s, 2000).

Lifestyle and Food

                Just like many other migrants, Cuban Americans love both the US and Cuban food. Traditional Cuban food comes when one mixes of West African and Spanish dishes in the Caribbean climate. Beef and pork are very popular in their settings. These are the most common diets in their tradition. Root vegetables, beans and rice usually go hand in hand with these dishes.

                Essential ingredients are always used in many major cities that they are in, including Miami. A sizeable number of Cuban Americans, especially the ones who have grown up in the US, can easily access a number of American foods. They also tend to reserve traditional cooking for occasions that are special.

                When it comes to their lifestyle, they are very unique. Children are very priced and taken care by both their parents and also the extended families. They are taught to value and respect their elders. Family values and obedience are very important.

                For children, education is very essential and a must for kids of ages six and sixteen. Pre-schooling starts at 0-3 years of age and the next phase is for children that are aged between 3 and 6 years. Once kids are done with secondary education, they have three choices. They can jump straight into the workforce, embark on vocational training or seek higher education via high school (Blanco, 2014).

Social and Political Issues

                When Cubans arrived in Miami, the city’s population tremendously grew. There is even an area in the downtown area known as Little Havana/La pequena Habana or Calle Ocho.

                The neighbourhood is known to be the epicentre of many well-known festivals. The Three kings Parade, Calle Ocho Fistival, and Cultural Fridays/Viernes Culturales are just but a few of the most famous festivals in the city (Blanco, 2014)..

                In Little Havana, life is always bright. You are promised to find a colourful street life. There are so many local businesses as well as restaurants that are found here. You won’t be disappointed to notice some of the most incredible dishes and authentic Cuban foods. Additionally, there are museums as well as theatres in this area.

                In any place that they are found, Cubans have an aspect of being passionate and are always warmth. Their politics are not bad and they always have restraint. They really love politics to some level and you will always find them discussing about it. In case you need to experience their culture, their neighbourhoods are a great area to start. You will experience both Cuban and Cuban-American culture.

                However, there has been some struggles and tension around different emergent populations in the Miami area. In Miami, there is a lot of Spanish speaking compared to many other cities in the US. They do this to affirm and maintain their cultural identity.

                In 1980s there was a lot of opposition against the use of widespread Spanish. It was known as “English Only” movement. It retrospective, Miami faced the first general bilingual education issue in 1963. Nowadays, the area is a very political place. It’s a central point of accessing educational, political and social reforms (Garci´a, 1996). .

                Because of its different features, population and languages and cultures, the area is in the middle of themes like multiculturalism and biculturalism.

Values and Way of Thinking

                To visit Cuba is to sink yourself into a different environment. Cuban traditions and customs have been practiced in Cuba for hundreds of years. Therefore, it can be said that Cuba is dipped into traditions that state their regional identities as well as differences. Going to Cuba especially during the holidays is a great idea. You come across exciting and enthralling adventures that will forever stick in your memory.

                Other customs as well as traditions in Cuba have been there since the start. Birthdays are different in Cuba that in the US, and many countries around the globe. Of course the kids can still have a cake and presents, however for adults, it’s different. In Cuba, it’s a tradition for an adult having a birthday to treat visitors to drinks (Levine & Asi´s, 2000).

                Every region across Spain has its own traditions as well as customs. This includes the ones that involve weddings, death and baptism.

Just like other traditions and customs in Cuba, wedding tradition are slightly different depending on the region. Some of the most common traditional weddings include the following. However, they are not limited because there are many variance due to age, family background and so much more.

The groom offers a watch to the brides dad after a marriage proposal is given a go ahead. Additionally, the bride’s dresses are different and may vary from the traditional white to black lace and silk gowns that are found in their culture. Brides may even come out wearing the flamenco style. Moreover, flowers are really important in any of their settings and they never miss. In the olden days, some of the weddings were arranged. However, the modern society has embraced mutual love between two lovebirds. Lastly, just like any other regions in Latin America, many people wed from their social class (Levine & Asi´s, 2000).

                Such aspects such as baptism are really important in the Cuban culture as well as most of other Latin American states. The baptism normally follows the Catholic rites. They are usually serious and well thought out celebrations. Another important celebration is the Quinceaneras. This is typically a girl’s 15th birthday. It’s one of the most important years of their lives and a lot of celebrations are market in such cases. It marks the right of passage from girlhood to womanhood in this Latin culture.

                In case of death, the Cubans mark this period with a lot of respect and dignity. There are specific customs and rituals regarding death, funerals and burials. One of the most notable celebrations to celebrate the dead is the All Saints Day. They buy flowers and visit the graves of their departed. Rights and passages of baptism, birth, dealing with death and the entry into womanhood are just but a few of the customs that are performed by the Cubans.

Point of View

                Cubans that moved into the United States early on were fully invited by the president and a country that wanted to fully fight communism. Therefore, most of these Cubans lavished a favourable relationship with the host communities. However, in the recent times, there have been small signs of conflict from Cuban Americans and American communities. Such cases have been on the rise lately. Their movement beyond the Little Havana enclave was followed by the movement of non-Hispanic whites. This was from the areas in which they had moved to (Levine & Asi´s, 2000).

Additionally, there has been a long withstanding resentment between African Americans and Cuban Americans in Florida. This is because Cuban have settled and become administratively and economically stronger in the Miami area. This has made them dominant. African American leaders in many cases have accused their Cuban American counterparts of shutting them out of key political and social decisions.

                In 1991, an article written by Nicole Lewis in Black Enterprise, black Dade county resident was mad by five Cuban Americans mayor’s failure to welcome officially South African freedom fighter Nelson Mandela. Their counter measure was to reject any  tourism related businesses in the Miami area.

However, many Cuban Americans have reported and view their relationship with other Americans as non-discriminatory. In a survey carried out by Hispanic Americans, in 1989 to 1990, it indicated that 82.2% of Cubans that were American citizens said they had not personally came across cases of discrimination because of their country of origin. Nonetheless, 47% of Cuban Americans that were interviewed indicated that they thought there was a high rate of discrimination against them in general (Levine & Asi´s, 2000).


                The results from this study indicate that transculturation has indeed played a huge part in absorbing the Cuban immigrants into the American society. They have maintained their identity while taking up some of the American ways. 

The factors that affect Cuban Americans behaviours as well as attitudes that are very deep and intricate. There is a lot of evidence that attitudes of the Cuban Americans have undergone great changes. This has been driven by the post-immigration that followed. People who came had a lot of progressive attitudes and this helped them in their stay here (Ceresa, 2017). 

There is also a significant amount of evidence suggesting that post generational differences will assist in making the community better than it is at the moment. However, more research is needed to find out if generational effects could play a significant impact on the Cuban American community.

Moreover, the government has to come up with ways to diffuse the situation between the parties that have been involved in conflicts before. Better legislations need to be set up in order to avoid scenarios in which a certain group of people feel as if they are being left out or being neglected.

Differences in individuals’ beliefs, attitudes as well as outlooks seem particularly likely among immigrants from different areas that experience huge social and political upheaval. With the rite attributes transculturation could turn out to be a blessing in disguise (Ceresa, 2017).

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