Q Assignment is about a memorable day when India was divided into two parts that led to the formation of Pakistan in 1947 Home, - The significance of the 1947 Partition of India Introduction It was a memorable day when India was divided into two parts that led to the formation ofPakistan. The following partition was concluded according to the Indian Independence Act of 1947. The partition resulted in the dissolution of British Raj. It was midnight, when the two self-governing countries, India and Pakistan came into existence on 14-15 August 1947. It was significantly the most important event in the history of India. In another case, this specific event looks a little bit elemental because India only came into existence due to partition. The idea of partition was complex and intricate because its subcontinent and cultures were also divided through political borders(Brown & Foot, 2016). In other words, the implication of partition became profound in India. Both countries still face consequences of the partition; for example, the matter of Jammu Kashmir is a challenge for India that goes back to the partition. The significance of partition is really huge and is like a shadow on the modern subcontinent. The significance of the partition can be accounted for the issues which were already present in the subcontinent. One of the major issues was the Hindu Muslim conflict. Sub-continent was divided into two different parts where a larger area was devoted to Hindu Majority(Gupta & Gupta, 2018). The rulers were also present under extreme pressure as issues of violence and divide have fueled the elements of the divide. According to the Joya Chatterjii, it has been stated that the division of India cast a long shadow over its religion, international relations, demography, economics, party politics and culture. The significance of the partition can be explained more accurately, by taking a look at history. Even before the partition of India, the process started with the partition of Bengal in 1757(Ray, 2017). After that India was officially ruled by British people in 1858,and they brought a full force to take over the country. It was necessary for India to remove these barriers so that they could live a life according to their beliefs. India wanted to establish on a higher level, and for this reason, political action began to rise(Gould, 2019). In the Academy of India, history is usually defined on the single date, in which partition was concluded. It has been deeply etched in the minds of people of India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. It was an important day, due to which a lot of people died,and a lot were uprooted. At present, only a few people would understand the significance of partition, what were the reasons behind it, why it was important for the whole nation and what were the impacts of partition. It was an important decision of history, which made the country independent and better on both political and economic level(Kumar & Kothari, 2016). The partition of India holds a lesson for today’s leaders,and it is important to understand all the facts and figures of the partition so that they can face today’s important challenges, for example, the challenge of Jammu Kashmir. The Reasons behind Partition There are certain reasons behind the partition of India, which also explains its importance. Many nationalist movements were emerged in India by the end of the nineteenth century due to which many British policies related to education, communication and transportation were expanded. The custom and cultures of the British became such disillusionment that it became necessary for the Indians to divide the continent into two parts(Gul & Hussain, 2017). So, the Muslim League passed a resolution in which they demand a partition from the British government. Although there were several reasons behind the partition as people wanted to live according to their custom and cultures. They were unable to accept the British cultures, and it was becoming difficult day by day to follow the rules and policies of the British government. The partition was not important for Hindus only, but it also affected the Muslim community. After the British government decided to act on divide-and-rule policy, the next concern of Indians was the Muslim community, who thought they would obstruct the country from them because they already ruled for three hundred years under the Mughal Empire(Ansari, 2016). To remove this threat from the minds of Indians, the British established the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh and supported the All-India Muslim Conference. After the formation of the league, Muslim were placed on a separate electorate and removed the threat of the Indian community. The partition of India defines the strong feeling of nationalism, but there were also communal conflicts in the country that were based on religious identities rather than Muslim society. It was an important aspect for the Indians. However they found some difficulties in learning English and following British rules,butthey were ready to do anything for freedom. Due to which, Hindus found better government positions, instead of Muslims who denied the British policies. This was an important step for Hindus,and as they were found more cooperative, they were able to transform stronger connections with the British government. They learned many important things from them and were able to develop some of their own rules, such as a ban on the slaughter of cows and making Hindi the national languages(Ali, 2018). The partition of India was also important because it gave an opportunity to both nations to live according to their standards. There were many mistakes made by Congress, which convinced the Muslim league that it was impossible to live in an undivided country, as there would be completely suppressed. The other main reason for partition was the success of the Indian National Congress in 1937, in which communal parties felt insecure and generated fear among its community(Arora, 2019). All these reasons play a significant role in the partition of India, as these reasons gave a motive to both communities, to demand a separate country. It was an important movement, in which both communities realized the necessity of a separate country. Although, it was a difficult decision that still had a positive impact on both nations. One of main significance for partition was the mass violence which impacted the power balance of subcontinent. The principal ideology and difference between Hindus and Muslims led the initial cause of separation. It was significant to analyze the level of struggle as resolution which Muslim league made in order to create a separate homeland for Muslims.(Brown & Foot, 2016) Role of Gandhi and Jinnah in Partition of India There was an important role of both leaders in the partition of India, which explains its significance more clearly. Both leaders were talented and eager to get freedom for their people. Due to the creation of the All-India Muslim League, Muslim leaders figured that India had just begun to transition slowly due to the rule of British Raj(Ahmad, Hussain, & Farooq, 2017). The major objective of a political party was to protect the interests of India’s large Muslim minority. The partition became an important part of Muslim to protect their representation in the legislature, public services in minority provinces and give protection to the Muslims where it was needed. The founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah who was the leader of the Muslim league, is often known as the most important personality who brought the partition. He wanted to have a separate country for the Muslims, where they can live freely without any restrictions but many historians see it in a different way as he not only divided India but also led the partition of Bengal. However, the partition of India cannot be only blamed on Jinnah, as there was a great role played by Gandhi(Riggs & Jat, 2016). He made such restrictions, which made Muslims demand a separate country. However, the main intentions of Gandhi were to rule over Muslim community, but it was Jinnah who argued that Hindus and Muslims were not only a matter of minorities and majorities,but there were two distinct nations. He also explained the importance of two separate nations and how it can be a better decision for both countries. So, the partition movement not only describes its importance but also describes the importance of leaders who make it possible for us(Mandal, 2019). Jinnah and Gandhi had a principal significant related to the partition. This was based on the movement of two leaders which actually directed the communities for a particular direction. Muhammad Ali Jinnah goal was to shift the element of power towards Muslim ideology. Gandhi had an opposed statement regarding the nature of separation. The Rise of Sectarian Separation Sectarian Separation is an important movement which played a crucial role in the partition of India. The Hindu-dominated Indian National Congress was first built in 1885, which led to huge protests when the British made an attempt to divide the Bengal along religious lines. However, both parties Congress and Muslim league were great opponents but intended to work together to get Britain to Quit India(Hussain & Usman, 2018). These political parties had a great impact on the partition of India. The political events occurring at that time were a threat to the British,so they gave separate electorate to different religious communities. These electorates had the outcome of hardening of boundaries among the different sects. By understanding the differences between Muslim and Hindu communities, the colonial government provided separate water facilities and restrooms for Hindus and Muslims at railway terminals. It was the beginning of the partition of India, which played a significant role in having a separate sectarian vote. It was the first step towards partition, which specifies its importance. Soon, the religious ethnicity became apparent during different festivals, such as during sacred holy cows were slaughtered, music was played in front of mosques during prayer time. World War I World War I and the events that occurred during World War I plays a significant role in the partition of India. As, both communities hated British government, and wanted to get freedom, they both volunteered troops to fight on behalf of Britain in World War I. The main reason behind alignment was to demand political concessions including independence. But the concept was failed because there were no such concessions made by Britain. But there was one advantage conducted from this event when a unit of British army went to Amritsar and demanded to kill unarmed crowd for protesting, hundreds and thousands of people became supporters of Muslim League and Indian National Congress. In 1903, Gandhi became one of the important figures of Indian National and wanted to unified Muslim and Hindu with equal rights(Ahmad, Hussain, & Farooq, 2017). However, the members of Congress were not inclined to join the Muslims, even against the British. Due to which, Muslim started to make plans for a separate country which led to the partition of India. World War II World War II also plays a crucial role in the partition of India. It created a crisis in relations of British with other countries, which make it sort of weak. This crisisalso occurred between the British, the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress. In World War II, the British expected India to send their troops again, but this time India opposed this fact and refused to sacrifice their soldiers for the British Government(Ali, 2018). At this time, Muslims came forward and offered their help in exchange of support of a Muslim nation. It is an important aspect in the partition of India which cannot be denied on any extent. As it was the first step towards the partition that was successful. So, the public opinion in Britain was swung against the expense of empire,and they were severely depleted due to World War II. In results during 1945, Churchill’s party was voted out,and pro-Independence labour party was voted. When they were voted for pro-independence, they immediately called out for the independence of India and granting freedom to Indian communities(Arora, 2019). A Separate Muslim State History has a large number of events that can define the significance of partition in a different way. It was an important event for both nations, that’s why after the British government was almost weakened, Muhammad Ali Jinnah started a campaign and demanded a separate country. He illustrated the importance of a separate country and described the needs of a separate nation whereas Jawaharlal Nehru of Congress was intended to unify both communities in a single county. All the leaders of Congress were in favour of united India, but Jinnah wanted independence for the Muslim community. This was an important event in the history of the Muslimcommunity when Jinnah fought for them in order to get a homeland for Muslims. As all the leaders of Congressdeniedthis separation, the Muslim league started to sponsor a “Direct Action Day”, that was supposed to be conducted on 16 August 1946(Arora, 2019). This action led the deaths of more than four thousand Sikhs and Hindus in Calcutta. It was a nice strategy to make partition possible,but sadly it resulted in hundreds of deaths on both sides of the communities and touched off the “Week of the Long Knives”(Arora, 2019). Indian Independence Act of 1947 An Indian Independence Act was announced in February 1947, which announced that India would be parted in two nations by June 1948. Both of the leaders were called by Lord Louis Mountbatten to agree upon this decision of a united country. But both leaders were unable to come up on the same decision. However, it was only supported by Gandhi. Mountbatten was reluctant to both parties to agree upon the decision as the country was dissolving into further chaos. He was the one who emphasizes the idea of the formation of Pakistan and also stated that it would be created from the Muslim-majority provinces of Sindh and Baluchistan(Riggs & Jat, 2016). It was the momentwhen the decision of two-nation was approved along with the division of Punjab and Bengal creating a Punjab and Hindu Bengal. Hence, the agreement was officially signed and announced on 3rdJune 1947. However, the date of partition was further moved on August and India celebrated its independence officially on 15thAugust 1947. Finally, it was the beginning of the partition,and the dream of Muslim nation came true because of this decision. The independence of India was left as “fine tuning”. The last objective of partition was the determination of the physical border in order to separate the two states. Conflicts on Geographic Partition After the decision of partition was officially announced, the next was to determine the geographic model of partition. It was a critical decision as the parties were unagreeable on fixing the border between two states. Geographic partition was the main areas which raise the importance of separation between Muslims and Hindus(Ray, 2017). The potential significance of the devices was based on the conflict of the majority as different groups were present in the geographical regions of the subcontinent. Muslim had a majority for two regions which were present in the north side of subcontinent while Hindus majority areas were distributed opposite to Muslim locations. Moreover, a mixed form was present for both of the areas as Christians and the Sikh community also fell in the geographic map. The partition of India has a significance for Hindu and Muslim majority because it helps to resolve the issues of land separation. In the content of separation areas like Punjab faced issues for equal separation.The significance can also be described as a positive gesture because half part of Punjab was divided for the Muslim majority while the remaining came into the geographic position of India. It can be found from the history that Muslim and Hindus were against the division of Punjab. The major issues were the presence of fertile land which had higher benefits for Muslims as well as Hindus(Ali, 2018).The partition of 1947 set out judgment for the geographical distribution of land. Mount Batten plan also has a potential significance related to the partition of India. It accounts for the legislative assemblies. MountBatten Help to divide the provinces on the basisof Hindu and Muslim Majority. The formation of the boundary commission has a significance for the portion. It is also important that the Muslim League and Congress position should be accounted for the for major areas of the divide(Riggs & Jat, 2016). The separation for the geographical areas laid the foundation of two different countries on the globe. The Line of Radcliffe Radcliffe line also analyzes the significance of 1947 partition of India.The main issues were the establishment of a boundary between two parts of the subcontinent. Radcliffe was the British Judge who was given the task to divide two areas based on the majority as well as demographics. His line remained a significant decision in the historical contents because it carries out an unequal distribution of borders which affected India and Pakistan.The process of boundary commission was carried out in five weeks(Riggs & Jat, 2016). This shows that additional pressure was present on Radcliffe to divide sub-continent. The significance of the award was based on the geographical positioning of the border. Punjab was split between Lahore and Amritsar.The most important area was the West Bengal was havinga higher proportion ofMuslins. The award raised panic for the people who were present on the different sides of the border. The significance can be determined from mass migration and confusion between Hindu and Muslim authorities(Brown & Foot, 2016). Elements of violence were linked with the Radcliffe award.India partition was carried out in unplanned manners. Thissuggests that issues regarding Indian population and border allocation were not kept in mind for the Radcliffe award and line. The after effects of the Radcliffe award can be observed on the base of the separation and divide. Hindus and Muslim understood that both communitiescould not live together owing to differences in cultures. The historical events after the Radcliffe award are also quite significant because it providesa highlight of the disaster which happened between India and Pakistan for the time of 1947.Radcliffe award had potential issues with the population as well as Muslims authority. Radcliff Line significance can be accounted for the divide of water resources for Pakistan and India. Issues were raised on the base of water divide as Radcliffe award disturbed the authority of rivers over the territory of India and Pakistan. The event of migration has significance as it accounted for the largest part of migration in the history of Asia.About 14.5 million people crossed the border from India to Pakistan.A similar number of Hindu populations crossed from Pakistan to India.The significance can be determined from the events which happened during mass migration(Gould, 2019). Impact of Partition Impact of the partition can be outweighed with historicalsignificance.According to Joya Chatterjee, partition laid the cause of the divide where agricultural, as well as economic activities, were affected by Radcliffe award. Most of the markets were reinvented,and a large number of people migrated from India to Pakistan(Ahmad, Hussain, & Farooq, 2017). One of the important significances of partition is the resources and infrastructure which were re-modified for Hindu and Muslimmajority. One of the important significances which can be related to the partition of India is the Radcliffe award for the area of Kashmir. Kashmir significance cannot be undetermined because the partition aimed to highlight the issues which remain a potential source of conflict between two countries. Kashmir has remained a centre of attention for India and Pakistan(Gupta & Gupta, 2018). Thecontroversy was based on the allocation of borders and potential intervention which divided the price of land into two parts. The first part is termed as Indian occupied Kashmir and the second is the area present in Pakistan custody. It is the impact of partition which affected the people,andthe Muslim majority was threated by the Indian community. The significance of partition can be determined as one of the important decisionsrelated to history. This event led the important dividebetween two states. Pakistan was eventuallyformingin 1947 and the second day was attributed to Indian partition(Riggs & Jat, 2016). Thepartitionsignificance is based on a series of past events. The first area is the addition of seeds which gave rise to two different parties in the subcontinent. Pakistan Muslim league was formed on the base of Muslim rights and independent state. One of the areas of significance can be correlated with the attitude of Hindus over the Muslim minority. Muslims were treated as the second-degree people where rights for employment as well freedomswererestricted to people. Muslims were given lower rank in society on the base of jobs as well as business. The creation of Muslim league can be connected with the partition of subcontinent because it helped to resolve the issues of the Muslim community and provide a separate state regarding the political and religious freedoms(Riggs & Jat, 2016).Religion has an important significance with the subcontinentdivide. Hindu and Muslim community resisted each other on the base of tradition and social norms. Perspectives Partition of the subcontinent can be analyzed on the base of a positive and negative perspective. The positive significancewastheseparate homeland created for Muslim who were not secure in the subcontinent. Negative areas were related to the border divide which led to potential issues of Kashmir and resources allocation(Ahmad, Hussain, & Farooq, 2017). Partition has also raised a tension for two nations which remains persistent at the present date.The significance of Lord Mount Batten decision can be accounted for the portion decision. Mountbatten rushed for the subcontinent divided which had a long-lasting effect on the future of two countries. Another significance was related to population. The divide between Hindu and Muslim majority show that partition was necessary in order to stabilize the culture and community divide.The significance of the partition can be defined on the base of law and order an act of massacre which was carried out against Muslims by Hindu communities(Ray, 2017). Significance in the amount of partition is also an important area which should be correlated with the historical events.Mount Batten had no decision left to resolveHinduMuslim issues on the base of the land and cultural divide(Ahmad, Hussain, & Farooq, 2017). The significance of two separate ideologies also forms the base of the subcontinent divide. Muslim leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah laid the foundation of separate ideology and presented his theory for Muslim. This act has a historical significance because it helped Muslims to provide direction and lead a potential movement against the Hindus narrative. Power significance can also be identified from the historical perspectives. The end of Raj tenure opened an issue for the partition(Ahmad, Hussain, & Farooq, 2017).A combination of economic and social activities controlled the rise of partition. Moreover, the additional areas of revolts and debts also raise the issue of the divide. Government were unable to tackles the separation movements. Conclusion The partition of India in 1947 has a historical significance in terms of the division of the subcontinent. This event created two new countries on different ideologies which lived together for a huge time. The area was accounted for deaths based on two million people.The significance of this divide is base on historical events and aftermaths.One of the significances is based on political divide which laid the root cause of separation. Another area is the changing ideology and condition for Hindus and Muslim. The vast majority of different sect and religions also helped to raise the freedom movement. The historical award of Radcliff and geographical conflicts raise the potential issues to a higher level which focused on the divide of the subcontinent.The significance of the aftermath can be related to the global tension based on the controversy of Kashmir. Hindu had the majority over resources as well as water. The historical divide led to an end of English rule on the subcontinent.This impacted two countries on the base of separation and migration.The partition can be analyzed as the most crucial decision carried out by Lord Mount Batten in his rule. Partition of Bengal can also be accounted foran important area where Muslim population had an unequal distribution for land and resources.