Assignment states that during any kind of disaster or natural calamity community are considered to be first respondent

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During any kind of disaster or natural calamity community are considered to be the first respondent. Despite the fact that the power and impact of community is very low, it is important to strengthen the disaster affected community. The Federal Emergency Management Association (FEMA) inspires the community to look after of itself for the initial 72 hours of the occurrence of disaster. Within this period the local government should provide adequate support and assistance for recovery of the citizens. In the present scenario, earthquake is the natural hazard which occurred in the city. The magnitude of this earthquake is around 7.5 magnitude and created huge damage to infrastructures, water supply, electricity and the communication facility. Even after the earthquake, the residents are facing continuous aftershocks are therefore very terrified. The earthquake occur during the afternoon and resulted in collapse of many commercial and residential building. It led to death of more than 120 people and around 200 people are injured. Due to the liquefaction, severe damage is caused in the built in structures of the city. This resulted in tonnes of silts which is ejected into surface and the waterways (Yeck, Hayes, McNamara, 2017). Most of the underground structures also broken as a result of liquefaction movement causing the release of untreated sewerage in the waterways.    

Role of public spokesperson

A spokesperson is someone who is elected or selected on behalf of a group of people to represent their point of view. The spokesperson holds the responsibility to communicate the story of the community to the local and state government council for effective crisis management. He/she is well trained and aware of the general principle of communication during emergency and crisis situation. A spokesperson is essential in connecting the needs of the casualties and victims of the community to the public and government (Beven, Almeida, Aspinall, 2016). A good spokesperson holds the capability to build the trust and remove anxiety and fear among the affected community. He/she is the person who can successfully communicate about the immediate needed help for community people such as providing medical treatment, food, drinking water, residence, electricity, and communication media (internet or telephone).  

Human factors responsible for communication breakdown

Inadequate communication interoperability: most of the failure in communication during emergency management is due to the lack of interoperability. Research has been carried out which is related to the communication at the highest level of disaster. In most of the educational institutions, it is clearly evident the absence of communication interoperability in the dictator management studies. Lack of interoperability occurs due to many reasons such as VHF high signals not functioning within a structure due to natural hazard. However, government need to work for its improvement or any alternatives such as satellites, balloons, mobile units along with satellites, and expanded broadband. For a successful interoperability, there is requirement of shared management, policies, control, and procedures. According to Haimes et al, (Haimes, 2015) the communication training to the community people of disaster area should be given from a prepared emergency and well educated responder staff. 

Second, lack of trust worthiness between the people is also another reason for the breakdown of communication. The victims or affected people share limited trust among themselves which is eventually reflected in their communication skill. So, the spokesperson selected by the people should be someone who is trustworthy and have an effective communication skill.   

Instructions for evacuation

For the evacuation of the community people before any predicted crisis requires their preparedness as well as resilience. Disaster resilience includes their sharing responsibility which can be enhanced through proactive planning for the protection of life, property and environment through an awareness of the upcoming hazard. The local government needs to understand the disaster risk, strengthened the disaster risk management, along with continuous improvement in the disaster preparedness. The prevention activities also include construction of infrastructure based on planning and building codes and earthquake resistant. Effective risk based planning includes hazard identification, stakeholder identification, risk assessment, developing plans, community education, exercise and training. 

Evacuation during an emergency is the response towards the crisis. The disaster response of the local government is determined by its ability of providing equipment and other resources to manage the emergency situation in the affected location.

Evacuation after returning to the normal routine includes the recovery phase. In this phase the local and state government inspects the overall damage due to the hazard and examine the required reconstruction of the damaged structure. It executes the immediate plan for provide the help like housing, drinking water, electricity and communication.    

Recommendation and strategies 

Training effective communication strategies to the communities is very important in any kind of hazard (natural or man-made).  

Sound the alarm- it is important for the victims to not mince the words related to the seriousness of the hazard. Only highlight the important and specific words which is meaning and necessary to get the message of the hazard. Unnecessary use of words reduce the impact and meaning of the message. 

Communicate as early as possible- Communicating at the earliest may lead to the rescue of the local people or even sending any possible help to them. This can be done through messaging or calling to toll free, or 24/7 hotlines or even through social media. 

Do not advertise brand in the wake of disaster- companies can lend helping hand in the crisis situation. For example the telecommunication companies can provide assistance to the affected area for fast and effective communication (Silva, Crowley, Pagani, 2014).   


Thus effective communication as well as team work is important for the rescue of people from the affected area safely. The spokesperson should be well trained to effectively communicate the message of people without spreading any kind of rumours. Moreover, the local government should be always be well prepared to provide assistance to the people against any kind of sudden natural hazard. 

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