Assignment briefs about cognitive theory on Joe who was forced to become thief for paying his father's bills

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Cognitive Behavioural theory (CBT) is defined as the type of psychotherapeutic treatment which makes the patients understand the feelings and thoughts influencing their behaviours. It is a common treatment theory used for the patients dealing with disorders like phobias, depression, addiction, and anxiety.   It helps in dealing the client with their specific problem in a specified short period of time. In its course of treatment, patients learn to identify and modify their destructive thinking pattern which has adverse on their emotions and behaviour. For example, when a person thinks a lot about air disasters like plane crash or run accidents has been seen to avoid air travel. CBT helps in assessing the underlying concept or reason behind an individual’s thought process which is clearly reflected in one’s behaviour. 

Describe how the theory you selected can be used to guide the processes of assessment, intervention, and evaluation.

According to Johnsen et al (2018) in the present case scenario of 'Joe the King' unlike other treatment process, the CBT therapists should involves in identifying the current problems of patients instead of focussing on the past issues. The therapists discuss with the patients about their specific issues and accordingly goals are set for overcoming it. Both the therapists and patient (Joe) work in collaboration towards finding solution of the specific difficulties. Thus, in CBT the patient has to undergo a complete assessment for identification of the cause and solution to the problem. For the intervention in CBT, the therapists aims at implementing different techniques for stopping the negative thinking cycles showing characteristics like anxious, feeling bad, and scared. The therapist uses the exposure therapy on patient for several times and keeps record of his improvement. They help in making the Joe self-dependent to tackle their problem by their own and improve their way of thinking. After several session of therapy, Joe is evaluated for tracking certain symptoms in their behaviour such as anger outburst, panic attacks, or doing any kind of self-injury. If the Joe is found to have completely free from all these negative behavioural activities, then they are advised to continue the CBT principles in the routine life to avoid any such symptoms in future. According to a survey report by Dobson et al (2018), it is found that more than 80 percent of patients suffering from anxiety and depression are now leading a normal life are completing the CBT treatment sessions. The reports also suggest that, the patients are able to take their life in a positive way and lead a sociable life with friends and families. 

Explain how the theory guides social work practice both with individuals and families.

When a patient is involved in CBT treatment therapy, it is not only between the therapists and patient but also the family is equally involved in it. According to Farmer et al (2016), CBT combines both the cognitive as well as behavioural therapies to have strong impact while treating for anxiety and mood disorders. The therapy basically target the emotions or thinking process by changing their behaviour and thoughts which are the cause of disturbing emotions. 

Family also play a major role in encouraging the patients dealing with anxiety, stress or depression. Especially, parents are the main source of encouragement for their children during their anxiety provoking or anger outburst. CBT intervention theory guides the child skill for identification and management of their anxious effect. In the given case study, the therapist/guidance councillor (Leonard Coles) should also involve the parents of Joe (Bob and Theresa) to encourage their child to expose in anxiety provoking situations in the routine life, which can be an important approach towards treatment success. Therapist should try to achieve ‘transfer of control’ from them to their parents with a gradual shifting of skills and knowledge. This helps the parents to know how to control, manage and encourage their children after the completion of the treatment process (Johnsen, & Friborg, 2015)).  

Integrate multiple sources of knowledge, including research-based knowledge and practice wisdom.

CBT has now become the most strongly established primary psychological treatment for different mental health related issues. Many researches have demonstrated the effectiveness of this therapy and the lessons learned from CBT lasts long in their life even after the completion of the treatment process. In this treatment process both the therapist and the client (patient) work together for identification of disrupting thinking and behavioural patterns. They look for the thoughts and attitude which highly affect patient’s feeling. For instance, in the given case study neither Joe's father nor his mother nor his brother is supporting him in his difficult times. Rather, they were the reasons who made him a thief and a failure in school. These events made him to believe that nothing is going right in his life and rejecting new opportunities in his life. In turn, this attitude leads to sadness, anxiety, and emptiness. This feeling is often referred to as the vicious circle of various feeling, thoughts, and behaviours.   

Critique and apply knowledge to understand person and environment.

CBT treatment is useful for understanding patients from different social background and environment. The CBT for depression generally initiated with educating about depression and making the patient understand about its symptoms and effect. The treatment strategy for depression include in directing the patient towards creating structure for daily activities, to become acquainted with their mood, pleasurable activities, and negative thoughts. Both the therapists and patient work each other for challenging the negative thoughts of patient against the world, the self, and the future. This process would help in reducing the feeling of hopelessness in them. In the present scenario Leonard Coles (guidance counselor) was friend to Joe but is incompetent to treat him. During the first treatment session, the counsellor paid least attention towards Joe's problem and even forced him to remain silent. Thus, for a better treatment process the counsellor should listen to patient's past and present problem and create a bond of trust. For the patients dealing with substance use disorders, CBT is used as a method of preventing or reducing the habit of drugs like nicotine, marijuana, or cocaine. The strategies include reinforcement and conditioning which further help the patient in reducing drug use. In this case, the patients are made aware of the positive as well as negative impact of continuous drug use, and identifying the high risk situation in drug use (Gámez-Guadix, Calvete, Orue, 2015). According to Dobson et al (2018), self-monitoring on the early cravings of drug or alcohol use is the best treatment. Further, the therapist suggest the patient to practice the best and effective coping strategy against substance use. The development of CBT in regard to its cultural aspects is in its initial stage, as it is still based on the dominant culture. In North America, the values of CBT include assertiveness, verbal ability, personal independence, behavioural and logic change. However, nowadays specific manuals or guidelines are being introduced according to the culture of Haitian American and Chinese Americans. 

Provide documented examples that support the application of your chosen theory to this particular case study.

In the given case study, Joe was forced to become a thief for paying his father's bill and replacing his mother's records. Further, due to a full time job Joe was least connected to his class studies and resulting in school failure. After all these serious issues, Joe was assigned to a guidance counsellor named as Leonard Coles. Joe is found to be suffering from depression because his abusive household condition. He was dealing with a feeling of loneliness, hopelessness, fear and tired which made him unsociable and trapped him in negative cycle. However, after an effective CBT treatment he should get positivity within him and should be ready for any new opportunity in his life. Apart from Joe, his family should also get CBT treatment to lead a normal and happy life. His father was under the control of substance use, while his mother and brother were living a fearful life from Bob (Joe's father). In conclusion, for an effective treatment the therapist should be skilled and should always listen to patient’s concern to build strong bond with them. 

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