Study attempts to offer a brief clarification of Information and communication & background of research was given.

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In our routine life, Information and communication technologies (ICT) have been appeared as a universaltruth. People from many countries believe that the use of ICT is as significant as power and water. Specially the last ten years are very important for linking ourselves to ICT, since it emerged as a global village with world wide access, ultimately modifying our life styles and all this took very short span of time. Our cultural fabric has got huge impact from this phenomenon, made us entered in a new digitized world of electronic shopping and making contacts with people on cloud, thus automated systems are in full swing. Due to these transformations, global economies got new shape and moved on higher steps by leaving the remote circles. The ICT domain has played an evident role in employment generation along with fiscalprogress in many countries.ICT is now considered as amajor source of capital that ultimately converted the economy by manipulating business and education sectors, since these sectors have become efficient and smart by coupling them with ICT, and this scenario is known as a multiplier effect on commercialevolution and employment. In ICT zone,direct impacts got overshadowed by the appearance of these indirect effectswhich are now a part of worldwide ICT procedures.


Smart phones and new mobile gadgets with robust internet technology has currently transformed the old fashioned technology in an innovative marketplace known as mobile commerce services. Hence customers have a broader and diverse area to accomplish their desired tasks, like users can enjoy online dynamic games, send and receive messages, perform business and forex transactions along with shopping electronically, buy different tickets, chatting with friends remotely with this mobile service. Mobile commerce services vary from basic features like Short Messaging Services (SMS) to an indefinitecutting-edge features (Benou&Bitos, 2009; Huang et al., 2007; Islam et al, 2011), such as mobile socializing, mobile wallet, mobile disbursement, mobile retailing and purchasing with mobile ticketing services all are available. Users of these powerful technological gadgets have customized options of managing their tasks and one of the salient feature is their being time and location independent.

Constantprogress is being made by the experts to enhancethe features of mobile technologies like mobile gadgets (e.g. color schemes with screen resolution) and mobile networks (e.g. LTE and 3G). Mobile tools have transformed as a interactive computing gadgets with the provision of optimized solutions that can smartly manage sound, images, video and other types of multimedia programs and in past it was only a simple voice transferring and receiving machine. With the introduction of these features, cell phones are now commonly used by large community to meet their daily needs, and in some past era these phones were expensive with a limited functionality, but the scenario is entirely different in this age. There would be6.8 billion mobile-cellular subscriptions approximately by the end of 2013 as per ITU estimates which are considered equal to number of people around the globe.

M-commerce trading zones are now the most powerful areas considerably in nations such as USA, UK, Korea and Japan because advancements have been appeared pertaining to mobile skills development, user friendly technology and its availability, speedy growth of consumers,improvedcost effective measures. Domain of m-commerce applications have recorded a few studies in a rapidlyemergent country. Additionally, Saudi Arabia is a rising kingdom in the field of mobile gadgets and infrastructure management and this study has a major focus on countries like Saudia. 

Mobile trading market should carry out the study regarding needs of mobile users and then provide the features to address the matters for onwards recognition of technology and users acceptance with the advancemensts and mobile commerce services. Because of unawareness, many mobile application providers don’t know the direction of the track in Saudi Arabia and in the same way, key element affecting Saudis is hidden from the local and multinational firms due to this ignorance. 


Since diverse components are included in technology acceptance, hence it is a difficult area to identify (Chiasson and Lovato 2001). User acceptance is the key element of this study that has a direct link with individual’s usage and mobile commerce adoption. This study will facilitatethe people of Saudi Arabia byclear understanding of adoption of m-commerce by choosinga m-com model approach using Unified Theory of Acceptance and use of Technology (UTAUT) as a hypothetical base. 


1.1 Study important, Aims, Objectives and Novelty


Start of 21st century is believed to be the well known time of mobile commerce, mobile and cloud computing, while, era pertaining to 1990s was about e-commerce and internet technology and 1980s was considered the season of personal computer machines (Min et al, 2008). M-commerce ensures a wonderful market gateway for consumers and trade. Conversely, the assuredgains have not beenannounced yet. Some countries, especially Saudi Arabia, are reporting limited m-commerce services and apps. But,with respect to the mobile subscribers, Saudi Arabia is ranking first, i.e 186% (CITC, 2011),restricted level of services offered in m-commerce is still insignificant compared to other countries likeUSA, UK, Korea and Japan. 


Achievement in m-commerce is dependent upon user acceptance. Mobile information systems (IS)  and associated application are used by its consumers. We thought that the out-dated IT acceptancetheories unlike features of m-commerce may be reviewed for updationsand a new hypotheticalstructure and optimum model may be constructed for m-commerce.

1.1.1 Research Aim


The basicgoalof the study is to revise the Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model (Venkateshet al., 2003) in Saudi Arabia by discovering such a mechanism which can clearly describe and spot the issues in acceptance of technology by m-com users. The IT acceptance models including UTAUT were initially created for personal computer machines or/and static line internet app because the said model cannot be applicable to m-com users without any latest modifications (Min et al, 2008). Application development, network setups, Usergadgets and business model, e.g. cost structure, value suggestions and income source are those diverse factors that distinguish betweenm-commerce and e-commerce (Zhang, 2001).


1.1.2 Research objectives


A broad and thorough literature review is available in this study forclearawareness and knowledge of m-commerce acceptancematters. 


Literature may be evaluated to find the reasonsbehindusers‘ adoptionof m-commerce.

Reports on e-services and m-services also need to be re-evaluated (e.g. e/m-commerce, e-marketing, e/m-business) contexts, discovering the Budget and Expectation on acknowledgement of new technologies at specific level. 

To analyse m-commerce adoption in Saudi Arabia, a research hypothesis and a model may be constructed,two supplementaryparadigms Costs and Trust are having impact on the user intention in this upadated model based on UTAUT. This model also obeys the proposition of  [1], in whichage, gender and qualificationare considered as an independent social variable. 


In two different researches in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the proposed hypothesis and research model were to be validated practically by conducting a quantitative questionnaire survey, then the results of this study were discussed.


A few minor factors were excluded and our first revised model has been improved  anda new construct was addedon the basis of first and second study result. Then this fresh updated model has been tested on Twitter mobile app, one of the mobile social network services. 


By following this approach, level of awareness regarding procedures by m-commerce service providers in real life got cleared and got a perception on the featuresaffecting the m-commerce recognition in Saudi Arabia as well as other evolvingnations. 



1.1.3 Key Research Contributions and Novelties


This studyis  considered as revolutionary and innovative due tofollowing points: 


Firstly, to develop the ability of the user recognition and practice, UTAUT be incorporated with other recognitionmodels or increasing new constructs according to earlier study (e.g. Zhou et al., 2010; Yassen et al., 2010; Chong et al, 2012; Min et al, 2008; Zhou, 2008; Shin, 2009) from earlier literature, this exploration model was built which was not recommended by any other user. To get a clear anticipation along withdescribingthe users acknowledgement and usage of m-commerce are the basic objectives of the study.


Secondly, with respect to market, mobile commerce service providers are putting efforts in identifying m-behavior of the usersinternationally, although most of the study emphasis goes to emergent nations like UK, USA and China. On other hand, theprocedures, performance andbehavior of the userswere also observed in many other countries, even with enormous economies, the world’s topmost exporter of oil , Saudi Arabia. Also, the Saudi Arabia with 186 % is believed to be the largestnumber of the mobile subscribers in the world (CITS, 2011); But, online acceptance in general is not found in the study. 


Chong et al, (2012) and Fusilier and Durlabhjiclaimed that the developed nations only got emphasized in this irresistiblestream of technological study. M-commerce specific area got a minor focus, irrespective of the fact that the risingnationsare on the top of line in IT based operations. Indeed, the research scholars have not observed any other study regarding m-commerce applicability and recognitionacross the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

To conclude, the impact of the ‘individualinnovativness’ has beenmeasuredgraphically. Nosuch other study was observed that measured this particular factor statistically in Saudi Arabia.  

1.2 Research Motive

In past century, provision ofadequate customer services was found deficient by private sectors in Saudi Arabia and many other less entrepreneur countries which was ignored for many many years. There were many factors and many reasons behind these poor service delivery structure. First, many productions / sectors were having almost no competitors or they were complete dominations, for instance, there was only one telecom company, only twelve Saudi banks,only a single electric company and just one airline and there were only one or two major stakeholders in many other industries or there existed only one state owned company through which services were offered. Second, greedy dealers exploit the customers since there are no rules to safeguard them and clientprivileges have vague and unfriendly guidelines. Third, the Saudi culture discourage the clients from complaining, for instance, it inclines to be with high power distance, more feminine than masculine, high socialism, and tends toward low ambiguityaverting. However, Saudi Arabia has worked hard to reach the world trade organization (WOT) between 2000 and 2003. Resultantly, many local companies have a fear to expect the penetration of multinational companies through open marketplaces. Hence the customersdevotion and pleasuregot uplifted. Many firmsthen started to recognize that friendly customer services and customer care are one of the main secrets to get new customers and support their customer base. 

Lot of industries started the provision of services as per the customers desires through their high quality distribution channel services in order to boost customer care after the arrival of open internet facilities in 2001. Saudi Arabia entered the WTO in 2004, two mobile and two airline  companiespurchased an effective license worth billions of dollars and four international banks started their services directly forfinancing objectives. Moreover, the new finance minister has requested the global trading companies to launch their services in Saudi Arabiaalong with his contributionsin developing thestruggle among the companies for high improvements. Twitter, a social network, was used by this ministry as well to report any violations by the firms. Consequently, many industries started improving. Local and international companies have belatedly recognized the worth of customer care to compete. But this was like running a marathon in dense fog, since the participantsare completely unaware of their positions and the right location of their track. In the same way, native and multinational firms remained unaware of the servives that were actually required by the Saudis. Different essential issues like Are business sector, providing the right services? Are they similar to those wanted by customers in west? Or do they have different hopes? With the desiredvalue ?  And exact price? regarding customer care still need to be addressed. 

Within this confusion, the researcher supposed astirring research prospect by which significant contribution towards knowledge and management may be offered. By availing this opportunity, an analysis was carried out for customersbehavioralmodelingapplswith respect to e-tech services used in built-upnations for association in less built-up countries like Saudi Arabia. 

Currently, the companies are motivated to use the mobile commerce services technology so that the customer satisfaction and care can be enhanced to highest level.  


1.3 Structure of the thesis 


Seven chapters are included in this study that arereviewedconcisely in the following section. 


Chapter two: Desired particular areas should be reviewd from the earlier research. Also an existing state of m-commerce may be given. 


Chapter three: Argues and defines the general procedures and structures for the experimentsobserved in this study. 


Chapter four defines the first study:  Formation and practicallyauthentication of the hypotheses and research model is the basic goal of this study. As already said, this chapter this chapter has a detailed analysis of the first study. After this segment, data collection instruments, the research methodologies, number of participants and data analysis aredescribed. The result and finding is reported and the conclusion is offered finally. 


Chapter five describes the second study: model from the first study was again observed in this study, but in one of the m-commerce mobile social network services. Comparison for identification was basic goal of the study. This chapter defines the research methodologies, data collection instruments, participants and data analysis as we discussed in chapter four. Then the findings are discussed and conclusion is offered in the last. 


Chapter six describes the third study: this study is derived from the first and second study.A fresh and updated model was constructed and thentested in Twitter network, one of the mobile social network application. To carry out detailed analysis and implement the new model on the most popular mobile social network application across Saudi Arabia is the key aim of this section of the study.  


Chapter seven offers a summary of the study findings from chapters four, five, and six. Findings of the study were then discussed andunderstanding on this subject that this thesis makes was developed. This section also identifies the shortcomings of the study and recommends areas for upcoming study to improve existing study.  


1.4 Chapter summary


This chapter attempts to offer a brief clarificationof the research work of this report. A background of the research was given, then other important sections like aim and objectives were presented. Then thearrangement of the thesis and brief description of the thesis was offered. 


Acomprehensive background of pertinentstudy has been demonstrated in the following chapter along with the provision of a framework for the goal 

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