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Literature Review on influence of climate change in Agriculture

Review on influence of climate change in Agriculture,revealed that agriculture is badly affected by weather conditions

Literature Review on influence of climate change in Agriculture

 

                            Review of studies conducted by past few scholars was done to study the influence of Climate change on agriculture. Review of existing studies revealed that agriculture is badly affected by extreme weather conditions. Crop production increases or decreases with the variability in the climatic conditions. There exists a positive relationship between the weather conditions and yield of the crops.

                            Studies conducted by Vivian revealed that climate change has extreme impact on the agriculture as it affects the crop production. Climate one of the important factors that can increase or decrease the crop production and if the crop production decreases it leads to high increase in prices of food. There is positive relationship between the changes in weather conditions and agricultural production. Climate factor cause uncertainties in the crop production as it leads to change in patterns of rainfall which is important factor in agricultural production (Vivian, 1994).

                      According to Birch global warming is the major issue which lead to import of 80% of the food of London. He also confirmed that cyclones and draughts affect the supply of food in various parts of the world badly as they destroy the cultivated crops in many regions which ultimately affect the supply of food and increase in price of the foodstuffs. Impact of climate change on agriculture can be reduced using some of the newly invented technologies but still climate remains the major factor in depiction of the yield of the crops (Birch, 2014).

                       Thornton, Dinesh, Cramer, Loboguerrero & Campbell stated that changing climatic conditions has lead to decrease in yield of the crops in past decades. He further confirmed that it has been seen that crop production has been decreased by one to five percent per decade due to change in weather conditions over the past 30 years. If there would not have been any change in the climatic conditions then, the yield of crops would have been more. This provides evidence of the fact that weather conditions strongly influence the crop yield in the field of agriculture  (Thornton, Dinesh, Cramer, Loboguerrero & Campbell, 2018).

                      Rosenz weig et al  discovered that after the droughts in Us in 2012, the production of maize has been decreased by 25% and percentage of exports has declined by 46.This shows how climate impact the production of crops in certain regions. He also stated that the negative impact of climate on crops can be seen in regions where global warming is high. The rise in levels of global warming has put negative impact on crops and lead to decrease in production of crops in these regions(Rosenz weig et al., 2013).

               According to Tobin, Radhakrishna, Chatrchyan & Allred climate impact the agriculture adversely and this effect can be mitigated using certain measures. Climatic changes such as increase in temperature, fall in level of rainfall and certain other changes leads to decrease in yield of various crops and also impact various regions of the world economically also. Initiatives which include modern day technologies in agriculture should be taken to mitigate the negative impact of climate in the yield of the crops (Tobin, Radhakrishna, Chatrchyan & Allred, 2017).

              YOSHINO found that climate is one of the significant factor that determine success or failure of a crop as climate affects the fertility of soli and fertility of soil determines the yield of the crop. Bad weather can lead to erosion of the soil which means removal of upper layer of soil. Appropriate levels of rainfall and specific level of temperature can increase the agricultural output to great extent. Decrease in agricultural output leads to decrease in food production which in turn leads to increase in prices of food stuffs. it is essential to mitigate the effects of bad climate on agriculture with the help of  newly invented equipments in the field of agriculture (YOSHINO, 1991).

           Mendelsohn conducted a study on influence of climate on agriculture which revealed that climate is important factor in determination of production of crops and it can affect both positively and negatively to the crops. He found that   1.5 degree Celsius rise in global temperature can lead to 13% decrease in the total revenues which is equivalent to 93 billion USD per year and a 3 degree Celsius rise in global temperature can lead to 28% decrease in total revenue which is equivalent to 195 billion USD per year. Modern technique of carbon fertilization can help in this scenario to a great extent  (Mendelsohn, 2014).

         According to a study conducted by Downing revealed that altered patterns of weather have deep impact on the pattern and production of crops. Draughts and cyclones affect the crops badly and they may destroy the crops .So, measures should be taken to mitigate the effects of changing patterns of weather and bad climatic conditions on the crops but climate will still remain the significant factor in determining the production of crops (Downing, 1993).

       H, Y. conducted a study on the topic “ A Review on Relationship between Climate Change and Agriculture” which revealed that climate affect the agriculture in many ways. The relationship between agriculture and climate becomes more and more stronger in case of developing countries as they are more dependent on agriculture for earning their livelihood and they are not equipped with enough technological equipments to mitigate the effects of climate change on their crops which lead to disruption of crops.  (H, 2015)

        Swaminathan B. found that climate posed a major threat to agriculture and bad climate lead to failure of crops which in turn leads to more severe effects such as suicides among farmers and food security of the country. People may die due to hunger and lack of food. The volume of trade on agricultural products among various countries also decreases which affects the economic growth of the countries. To mitigate the effect of climate change on cultivated crops, farmers use various fertilizers which put bad effects on the health of the animals and human beings (B, 2017).

 

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