The discussion paper is on different philosophies and literary theories covers the time span of one whole day

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Discussion of different philosophies and literary theories

1.            Discuss the strategies by which Susan Glaspell's Trifles meets the credentials for THE UNITIES OF ACTION, TIME, AND PLACE and THE "WELL-MADE PLAY," as well as how those strategies contribute to the plot and to the theme.

According to the three main principles of Aristotle, Susan Glaspell’s Trifles also meet the requirements. This play is a one act play and employs a single plot setting, in an old house called as the “old house of Mr. and Mrs. Wright”. On the other hand, this play also covers up the principle of “Unity of action” as, Susan Glaspell set her main three characters (two women and three men) to investigate the murder case of Mr. and Mrs Wright (Fuchs, 2017). This play also covers the time span of one whole day until the murder mystery get resolved. The play write, Susan Glaspell is also concern of the principle of “Well-Made Play”, where the plotting is artificial and there should be a built-up suspense, climax and the happy ending. Here, the plotting of the drama mentioned above is critical and there is a suspense related to the murder mystery as well as the case was solved by the protagonists in the play (Conover, 2015). Therefore, all the strategies effectively do justice of all the principles of Aristotle and a “Well-Made Play”.

2. Compare how ONE play and ONE poem differently address the discrepancy between traditional IDEALISM and modern DISILLUSIONMENT.

                Generally, in poetry, poets used the notion of idealism through a romantic vision. In the late 19th century, it has been seen that poets have been applying the theory of idealism to idealize Nature. The awe of natural and world and its connection to human beings are one of the common themes in romantic poetry by Wordsworth, Keats, Shelly and others. Whereas, a play portrays idealism through notion of individualism, the society constructed by the emotions and throughs of individuals (Kennedy & Gioia, 2008). On the other hand, the disillusionment theory entered the poem and plays mostly in the post-world war era. For example, “The Waste Land” by T.S.Eliot is one of the greatest example of disillusionment after the post war time where he presented the fragile and unworthiness through the concept that world becomes an infertile land. On the other side, disillusionment in plays are exhibited through daily lives and the more subjective thoughts of disillusionment that connects individuals in a society.  

3.            Chinua Achebe's Michael Obi, from "Dead Man's Path," is a tragic character. How is a character from another work covered in class similarly tragic?

From the analysis of “Dead Man’s Path”, it could be said that the protagonist is a tragic character. To justify this statement, it could be said that this character presents, in small scale, the extremes of governmental Bureaucracy, his deep-rooted agenda is to inflict his modern-day processes on his co-workers as well as neighbours along with little attention on the cultural conflicts and realities of the village communities around him. Therefore, it could be said that the protagonist’s high-handedness that turns on itself at the end of the story as well as he is thoroughly paid back in his own pride.

4.            Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wall-Paper" is an essential example of the so-called "female Gothic." How so? Also, compare its female-Gothic credentials to those demonstrated by another work covered in class.


According to the so-called “Female Gothic” theme, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wall-Paper" stands for the predicaments of its female character. Here in various ways criticism of the male dominated society is portrayed and the writer has tried to educate their female readers about that. One of the string themes of all is the helplessness of the protagonist. She is helpless not just because of her actions and moral decisions but also surrounded by the male dominated society (Höglund, 2017). The patriarchy has been imposing the fact on her that she is fine though she is helpless. On the other hand, “Medusa” is a poem with Duffy and dark humour, filled with monologues and questions that encourage all the female readers to try and indulge in the life with the help of eyes of the narrator. Through this poem one can understood that jealousy is a strong and negative emotion that can ruin lives and confidence.


5.            Explain, focusing on imagery and word choice.

The imagery of black wall of the memorial suggest all types of war-worn images from the aggressive and destructive past that are full of agony and sufferings. This poem explains just what effect these wars have on a young black soldier who is struggling hard to adopt in the here and now. On the other hand, the word “hiding” is very much prominent in the poem, which might suggestive of shyness, wanting to hide, avoiding circumstances and doubt of being seen.

6.            Dylan Thomas' "Do not go gentle into that good night" and Wallace Stevens' "The Emperor of Ice-Cream" each address death differently, and both betray what might be expected. Explain, focusing on imagery and word choice.

"Do not go gentle into that good night" by Dylan Thomas mainly focus the plea of a son to his dying father. The line “Though wise men at their end know dark is right,” reflects that people know that death should be an acceptable phenomenon and a natural part of the life (Lang & Seltzer, 2015). Therefore, people must accept it as it is. On the other hand, through the line “Because their words had forked no lighting”, the poet focuses people want to hold back to be capable to leave their marks and thereby sustaining each memory in history. "The Emperor of Ice-Cream" by Wallace Stevens suggests a defining imagery of sharp conflict among images of death and life. The first two stanzas of this poem bear this type of duality. The former of suggests a scenery of life and the later one suggests scenery of death. Both imageries are strong and real but are in sharp contrast (Charon, 2017).


7.            Consider how a short story covered in class plays with the uncertainty of individual perception and subjective experience in the same way as Louise Bogan's poem, "Medusa."

The poem “Medusa” effectively uncertainty of individual perception with the help of effective presentation of the personal perception of the character about life and about her emotions. The subjective experience is also justified by putting up suggestive imageries of how jealousy can destroy individual confidence and become a curse to frieze life to death.

8. Edgar Allan Poe's "Annabel Lee" and William Butler Yeats' "Leda and the Swan" both use Romantic language and imagery to ironically disillusioning (even upsetting) effect. Explain.

The first poem in the above list; "Annabel Lee" presents the memory of childhood love where there is no struggle or barriers and darkness to complicate the emotion of love. Though, romantically reflecting love in the poem with musical rhythms, this piece of art also portrays or rather disillusioning the beauty of life and love that fades away and death can not be beaten by the power of love (Poe & Poe, 2016). The second poem, "Leda and the Swan", narrates the Greek story of Leda and Zeus, lust of the Greek good and its consequence. Though overloaded with romantic imagery and language, this poem is actually suggesting the destruction of the entire Greek civilization by the beauty of Helen of Troy who is the daughter of Leda and Zeus (Best, 2018).  

1.            How is Flannery O'Connor's "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" an example of the Southern Gothic? In particular, consider what the grandmother and the Misfit each represent.

Throughout this piece of art there is essence and evidence of horrific, irrational thoughts by the characters, desires, presence of dark humour, and an angst-ridden sense of alienation. All these characteristics proves this piece of art as a Southern Gothic (Windriani, 2018). The two characters, Grandmother and Misfit in the short story mentioned above, are the representation of fake notion of lady and gentleman in the society.

10. Joyce Carol Oates' "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" has been called "suburban Gothic." Why? Also, how does Oates clearly take a page from Nathaniel Hawthorne's book when it comes to using ambiguity (such as in "Young Goodman Brown," for example)?

                Joyce Carol Oates’ work is called a “Suburban Gothic” as it represents anxieties of people and an entire culture of the development of suburban communities in modern days (Anderson, 2015). When it comes to using ambiguity, similarities of the two works should be considered as a wring deed but these two different stories containing elements, which are contrasting with each other. In this sense, indistinctiveness is there.

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