Q Assignment on National Business Ethics Survey based on ethical evaluation and obligations Home, - National Business Ethics Survey National Business Ethics Survey Introduction The assignment is based on ethical evaluation and obligations that havebeen maintained in the workplace environment. It has increased learning on the workplace situation and circumstances based on critical case studies, which increases information over ethical consideration enquires to mutiny and its importance in the workplace. It has also focused on the issues related to posing of workplace information in the social platform and its impact on the workplace environment and company itself. The assignment increases information on norms and regulations which has imposed to reduce workplace conflicts and has made brief discussion on employee and employer relationship issues. Identifying the ethical dilemma and discussion on ethical obligations a)In this case; Kim Tanabe being certified public accountant of De Souza & Shah has been said to increase the rating of ACB Software solutions which is runningin the name of Warren’s Wife. In the same case; Kim has been advised to reduce accounting rating of the software package of Maximum software limited. The rating has been changed as advised to Kim so that JKB communication can order and make a business deal with ACB communication rather than maximum solutions for the software packages. Warren is an Audit Manager of De Souza & Shah; thus, in this case, there has been an ethical dilemma of decreasing the financial performance of the participle company and increasing the rate of other company which is ran by Warren’s Wife. Thus, change in rating as ordered to Kim has been a clean case of self-interest. As per the analysis, it has been evaluated that the development of personal business at the time of the company. In the business organization every employeeare provided with specific tasks, responsibilities and performance activities to provide a contribution towardsthe goals of organizations (MacDougall et al. 2015). The job descriptions and activities included in their work are required to be done for the company only. The regulation and company norms include employee act and contract, that are inclusive of things which are needed to be done and otherwise. In that contract it has been mentioned that while working in the organization, every activities and task required to be devoted for organizational purpose only not for personal interests (Ballantine, Guo and Larres, 2018). On the other hand, the employee’s contract also includes a confidentiality agreement, which states that business information regarding trades and rating required being under confidentiality within the workplace or withinthe concerned people. It should not be shared or used for other purposes or self-personal interests In the case, it has been shown that there has been a breach of employee’s contract, as being an Audit Manager of De Souza & Shah, Warren has disclosed the ratings to her wife’s company. Thus the rating of the company has been observed comparatively low in relation to Maximum Software Limited. Thus, JKB Communication will provide the software package deal to the Company only as its rating is higher in comparison to ACB Communication which has been running by Warren’s Wife. Thus, Warren has made personal interests in giving a higher rating to his wife’s Company in order that JKB can provide a deal to the software package for ACB communication only. On the other hand, there has been another dilemma that has been presented in the Case, i.e. Unethical Activities that havebeen ordered to Kim as a Certified Accountant of the company (Linehan and O’Brien, 2017). As per the case, the ethical obligating of Kim needed to be not to disclose the client or customer information to other third party. It is ethical obligation of an accountant not to disclose business information and other personal information of customers to any unauthorised third party. On the other hand, another ethical responsibility that has not maintained by Kim has been high moral value and integrity towards their duties and job responsibilities. There is requirement of honesty and strong moral principles towards accounting and auditing functions which are required to be developed and obeyed by an accountant in the firm. Thus, in case Kim has not maintained integrity and honesty over the work specification and directed his subordinate o increase rating of an company which was owned by his wife. The objectivity is another obligation which is to be maintained by an accountant. In this ethical consideration, a CPA is required on decision without engaging any form of biasness and decisions required to be fair and proper for their respective clients (Rodríguez and Juricic, 2018). The ethical responsibility of an account has been to not use its positioning for self interests, which has been made by Kim, He has not engaged ethical responsibility towards fairness and honest decision making towards rating of financial posit ion of both companies. Other obligation such as professional behaviour required to e different apart from personal behaviour in position of accountant, which concludes an individual holding position of accountant need to make justice to his or her position by making accurate decisions. These are some of the obligation that has not been maintained by Kim in the particular case and engaged favouritism and biasness over taking decision over business rating of companies. b) By evaluating the case, the following is observed; Janny a Tax Accountant has been instructed by her supervisor Jeff to consider a tax matter that would reflect in a refund of taxes in the previous year’s return of taxes substantially, the tax refundisabout the tax return aspects regarding technical provocation in taxation charges for Fine Deal Limited. By analysing the case, it has observed that the Tax Accountant Janny has been asked to enhance the income generation values of the firmin relation to increase substantial tax refund as per tax provisions. This results in huge taxation returns for Fine Deal. It has been evaluated that the Fine Deal would pay less taxation charges in comparison to the actual payment to be done to the income tax department. The tax accountant has made this decision in relation to put benefits for the Fine Deal Company first. The managers of Fine Deal Company might have made some point of a settlement with Jeff in contrast of which misevaluation of tax income has been shown, based on which the tax renovation and tax returns has been increased for the company. The case then evacuates that Jeff told Janny that this is the normal course of tax refund practice in the firm and its livelihood of Inland revenue department questioning is very limited. In an ethical dilemma, Jenny has faced several issues such as conflicts of interests, pressure from management, pressure from customers, issues of self interests, illegal and fraud attempts which has been highlighted in the case. One of the dilemmas that have been faced by Jin included code of interest, in which Jenny has been forced by management or higher authority to manipulate the taxation among, so that the client’s tax evasion van be put in way that is profitable for the company (MacDougall et al. 2015). Jenny has faced issue of conflict of interest, in which by knowing the incorrect activities are occurring, he was not able to change or argue to the activity that has been performed. On the other hand, the order is provided by his superior for changing the tax evasion, which was another form of ethical dilemma that is high pressure from management (Demek et al. 2018). Jenny this case, knowing as it is an incorrect as per his job specification he has to manipulate the tax rate and values due to pressure of customer stated by his superior. The ethical issue that has been faced for the customer base, to change the tax rates so that management of Customer Company can show their higher profit margins. The refusal or non-perfuming the activity might have resulted loss of client or less of job for Jenny. Thus, in such cases pressure of customers has seen impact end on Jenny. The ethical dilemma of illegal financial frauds has also highlighted in the case, in which through the superior’s advice the tax values are manipulated which is an illegal financial fraud that has been caused or occurred in front of Jenny. Critically evaluate the danger of posting workplace information in social networking sites for the employer and employee! According to Fusi and Feeney (2018), employees posting workplace information might have high changes of getting fired from their respective jobs, as per company norms it is an offended activity which has prohibitions as per business laws. On the other hand, the employee’s productivity and performance are also reduced while their focus and interests are diverted from their job targets to the social media posting. In addition to it, social media posting reduces job based conversations thus there are lack of sharing of workplace activities, new ideas of development and project completion planning which is replaced by workable gossips. As per analysis, workplace information also reduces the confine and imager of employee in front of management, which reduce change of appraisals, promotions and career development. In case of employer, employers starts tend to r educe relation with the employees, which effects coordination, cooperation leaders and direction. This social media posting also reflects lack of control and supervision and lack of training of employers towards their employees. This reduces changes of further career development promotions and appraisals for employers. (Aboelmaged, 2018) mentioned that social media posting on workplace information also increase employers competency and explores their planning and plotting which are letter chances of criticise and increase of workplace politics ageist them. The employers skills of hiring and recruitment also becomes at risk radar, as the confidential information are leaked to social media. The employer’s image and job security becomes at risk as high confidential information leakage might ruin their careers forever. On the other hand the lack of flow of information will be resulted from employer in risk of leakage in social media, which damages the flow of information in workplace. The survey states that about 60% of employees in the workplace during their working hours comment on social media platform about the company if there has been any form of news been published in the media. As per the evaluation, the comments might be negative or positive made by an employee and it certainly affects the company’s image and workplace culture as well as activities. Luo et al. (2018) have evaluated that workplace regulations and standards are also highlightedinto questionable observations where these standards are not able to reduce such form of activities. On the other hand, the report states that 53% of employees usually share information related to work projects once a week in different social media sites and platforms (Lewis, Thomas and Sanders, 2018). In most of the cases, information is not used to be publishedin the form of media according to confidentiality agreement of employee’s contract law and the business law of the firm. The report also suggests that 35% of employees’ comment about their co-workers, colleagues, managers, supervisors. In some of the cases, it has been found that employees tend to comment about the owner of the company itself in regard to misconducts, misbehaves or sometimes harassments faced by employees in the workplace (Schaefer, 2018). As per the analysis, it has been stated that rise of social media platform has enhanced the option for employees and individual to express their anger, emotions, feelings and other thought procedure in front of the public. Demek et al. (2018) studies showed that there are speculations over some of the individuals talks about their company and workplace environment in social media platform, or some of them like to share pictures videos, and other alternative options in the social media sites. It has assessed that the posting of such information of the company and its employers’ dictates weakening employee relations maintained in the organization. Fusi and Feeney (2018) have stated that activities in social media during working hours are observed to be a loss of productivity. It hasbeenobserved that most of the employees spend at least 2-3 hours on social media activities. This dictates productivity of employees are reduced by that hour only, which estimates the day end performance is less than expected by the company from an employee. As per Rodríguez and Juricic (2018), the endurance of social media also declines focus and interests towards the work for employees during the working hours. It has observed that most of them are absent-minded or not able to give their 100% in their specific job roles due to their loss of interests and employees devotion. It has stated by Luo et al. (2018), hacking is one of the dangerous attributes which is engaged in social media platform.It has been evaluated that when employees operate social media activities through the company networks, it is highlypossible that malware attacks can be detected by hackers, thus results to steal the company information, confidential information and other data that are served for company product. Ballantine, Guo and Larres, (2018) has supported this further that posting of comments through social media platform can be dangerous as it leaks the company information, work culture and approaches been involved in the workplace. The negative reviews in social media related to culturebehavior or activities in the workplace, can damage its brand image and increase fake speculations within the publics from whommost of them can be company consumers, suppliers, investor’s and individuals thinking of joining the organization. MacDougal et al. (2015) have observed that any form of negative moments could be dangerous which goes to the public through social media. It has been evaluatedthat development is such comments changes minds of consumers and other investors to invest or produce products due to the involvementofthe firm for such inappropriate activities which are not acceptable in the media. It is also been seen that the social media sites are not that highly secured and therefore, posting the workplace information may results in loss of client’s database that can severely affect the employers. Luo et al. (2018) mentioned that posting such information in social media can affect the company but also reduces the employee relation in the workplace. Further examination pointed that harassment and cyberbullying can be faced by employees from their employers while posting any form of negative comments regarding workplace behaviour. As per the Aboelmaged (2018), the negative reviews over colleagues or employer in social media is employee misconduct termed as per the business law and regulations set by entities regarding the use of social media. Thus, the employees might face some sort of apathies, or suspension form work can also be enacted. Sharing insider company information is not an authenticated activity from employees. The employee might get negative reviews and lack of coordination from their colleagues due to the improper act conducted by them. Fusi and Feeney (2018) havealso supported the fact that engagement of social media comments reduces the communication and interactionwithin employees or between employee and employers of organization. It has been stated that the development ofsuch posts from employees or employers of organization about company information or culture is stated as a breach of confidentiality. As per Demek et al. (2018), the posting of company information also dictates that it provides an unauthorized speech power within employees to talk about company performance, workplace development and other workplace activities in social media. This might increase misinterpretation within the social media users regarding workplace activities which are thought from the posts. Luo et al. (2018) alsohave stated that the social media postings have been negative impact creating negative company image which certainly reduces the employee's profitability. This indirectly impacts on appraisals, promotions, rewards and pay scale of employees as well. In a business organization, posting of company information and about its work activities or project information in social media has a certainimpact on the market competition and product performance as well (Aboelmaged, 2018). Conclusion The assignment has increased brief evaluation of the business ethics, business law and standards related to workplace and workplace activities. It has highlighted different case scenarios in which the ethical obligation of accountant has been discussed with information on the issues faced by accountants in respect of their ethical beliefs. The assignment has increased learning on effects of workplace information posting on employee and employers of organisation.