What is the most effective hand hygiene method among soap and water

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Question: What is the most effective hand hygiene method among soap and water or alcohol based hand sanitizer to prevention of Coronavirus disease among uninfected people?

Answer:- Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infection and it caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and it continues to spread throughout the world and even beyond healthcare systems around the world (Kumar, Malviya, and Sharma, 2020). Due to the global pandemic many countries introduced recommendations to the person to keep distance one meter from other people, wear a mask properly and keep hand hygiene with soap and water or alcohol based hand sanitizer to prevent the spread of COVID-19 (Liao et. al., 2021). Hand hygiene is most significant control of corona virus disease. Hand hygiene define as hand washing with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand disinfectant (Singh et. al., 2020). The role of hand washing in preventing infections has been known for over a century (Swain, 2021). Hand washing with soap and water is a common and inexpensive precaution (Swain, 2021). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) hand sanitizer is an alcohol based gel or liquid for antiseptic designed to inactivate microorganisms and inhibit their growth temporarily (Singh et. al., 2020). Hand hygiene awareness among can effectively prevent COVID-19 infection (Swain, 2021). Therefore this study will focus on effectiveness of soap and water compared with alcohol based hand sanitizer.

Washing hands is just as important as food. It is the most effective strategy to keep fit and avoid numerous ailments. Detergent is essential for cleaning dirt, germs, and grease and preserving optimum hygiene daily. Soap and water are considered to be highly effective than hand sanitizer at eliminating specific microorganisms, insecticides, and similar toxic chemical residues that linger on hands.

Hand sanitizers are incredibly efficacious in health facilities after hands get in touch with pathogens yet not filthy or oily. H and sanitizers may be beneficial against specific germs on greased hands. Hand sanitizers might never be efficient when hands are extremely filthy or oily, like engaging in activity in the garden, farming, swimming, commuting, or visiting places with many people. It is often recommended to wash thoroughly with soap and warm water in such situations. Sanitizers do not eliminate dust, dirt, or oil; instead, they leave hands oily, attracting more dust particles. Hand disinfection is defined as washing hands with soap and water, antibacterial hand sprays, antibiotic hand wipes such as alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS), polyurethane spray or creams, or medical hand dressings, per the Centers for Disease Control and Control (CDC). Due to the convenience of application, water scarcity, and administered effectiveness in reducing bacteria growth, hand sanitizers are becoming more popular as an antibiotic.

According to a study of academic materials, there is insufficient knowledge on hand sanitizers and handwashing with soap and water. Since COVID-19 has grown extensively throughout the globe, frantic purchase of sanitizers in response to the coronavirus outbreak has resulted in the stockpiling of sanitizer aerosols, creams, and other products not realizing the sanitizer's impact. The primary goal of this review is to determine whether hand cleaning with soap and water is better effective and convenient than applying hand sanitizers in removing particular pathogens.

The Study 

Contaminated hands are often associated with people in society and therefore hand hygiene is known to be an important control strategy for the prevention of the viral diseases. (Vermeil, 2019). The concept of hand hygiene comes from the middle of the 19th century and it was first introduced by Ignác P. Semmelweis (Roshan et al., 2020). The history of hand washing goes back to the Babylonian civilization and explore the hand washing has historical monuments from the earliest documented soap recipes of Babylonian civilization to the discovery of chlorine (Vermeil, 2019). Using soap and water for hand washing first mentioned in the guidelines for the prevention of virus infections in the 1980s (Vermeil, 2019). Although alcohol has been used as a disinfection since the late 19th century, the origins of hand hygiene have been controversial. Meanwhile, in 1966, Loop Hernandez a nursing student at Bakersfield, California, invented a sanitizer for doctors using a combination of alcohol and gel before treat to the patients. (Hsu, 2015). In the last two decades, hand hygiene changed the paradigm from hand washing with soap and water to alcohol-based hand sanitizer (Vermeil, 2019). Poor hand hygiene is strongly associated with an increase in infections (Prater et al., 2016). After WHO declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic on March 2020, both hand hygiene method are used to prevention of the transmission of COVID-19 virus (Wang et al., 2020). However there are different types of hand hygiene methods worldwide and the most effective hand hygiene method is indecision. Therefore, the desire this study is compere the effectiveness of soap and water and alcohol based hand sanitizer.

Justification of the Study The most recent coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China in December 2019, and rapidly spread throughout the nations by infected more than ten million people worldwide and deaths more than 580,000 people (Baig, 2021). COVID-19 caused the worst 9149270 (Dinleyici et al., 2021). Early estimates showed the pandemic caused around $ 8.8 trillion in damage to the global economy (Baig, 2021). There are no effective treatments or vaccines and therefore, non-drug measures are taken to control the spread of the virus (Dinleyici et al., 2021). Hand hygiene is a most significant method to prevent the spread of the corona virus (Weijers and de Koning, 2021). Hand washing with soap and water and alcohol based hand sanitizer are the two main methods of hand hygiene (Susilaningrum et al., 2021). This study is to compare the effectiveness of soap and water and alcohol based hand sanitizer.

The study findings will help to decide the better way to prevent COVID-19. The demonstrations and awareness programme can be arranged to circulate the findings to the society. It will help to improve the knowledge and attitudes of the society to prevent the transmission of hand hygiene method. In addition, this findings will serve to the healthcare officials to make decisions and to minimize the active cases and deaths. As a result can be help to improve the person’s quality of life while in a pandemic season.

Purpose of the study Main objective - To compare the effectiveness of soap and water and alcohol basedhand sanitizer to prevention of corona virus disease. To investigate the association between the frequency of washing hands and the frequency of acute sickness or flu episodes, researchers evaluated the efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer with soap and water in avoiding the spreading of pulmonary tract illnesses.  

Specific objectives:

To identify the effectiveness of hand washing with soap and water to prevent the spread of Coronavirus disease.

To identify the effectiveness of alcohol based hand sanitizer to prevent the spread of Coronavirus disease.

To critically analyze the effectiveness of two selected methods way to prevent the spread of Coronavirus disease from uninfected people.

The main parts of the SARS CoV-2 pathogen are RNA enclosed by a polypeptide and surrounded by a fatty acid membrane. The interconnections are feeble since there is no chemical link to keep the triple element linkages strong, and the actual self is a failure contact. Connections between SARS CoV2 fats and alcohol-based sanitizers may further split the poor contacts, causing the viral component to detach off the skin. Fats are liquid in polarized solutions in principle, and their volatility rises as the orientation of the solution improves. In the dearth of soapy water, antibacterial soaps effectively reduce viral spreading from people's hands. They play an essential function and may be a superior option to hand washing. As a result, prioritizing appropriate hand cleanliness is a critical first-line barrier preventing SARS CoV-2 transmission.

Given the present state of knowledge, it is difficult to recommend one method of hand sanitizing administration over another. Soap and water are preferable to a sanitizer, and if soap and water are impossible or problematic, a substantial amount of sanitizer is required to guarantee total hand treatment, and adherence is essential for proper hygiene practices. Furthermore, antiplasmodial evidence on viruses with identical structures to SARS-CoV-2 suggests that this virus can be efficiently neutralized with existing hand hygiene solutions; however, more study is needed to confirm this.


Cleansing or using an alcohol-based sanitizer is among the critically important steps in preventing primary or secondary COVID-19 infection since it decreases the amount of viable SARS-CoV-2 virus on unclean hands. Hand washing is required between physical touch with sick people while managing intrusive equipment for care delivery, following contact with biological secretions or by-products, following interaction with things near the patient, especially healthcare devices, and beginning any hygienic work. Hand soap and warm water is recommended by the CDC anytime practicable since it minimizes the number of viruses and pollutants on hands. If hand washing is not accessible, a hand sanitizer with the highest dosage of 60% ethanol or 70% alcohol deactivates viruses biologically linked to the COVID-19 and has comparable structural features. Washing hands can physically eliminate bacteria, but hand cleaning with antibiotic solutions successfully removes persistent germs.

The suggested timeframe for the whole hand wash operation applying the usual methodology is around a minute, per the Policies and Procedures on CDC, WHO. Due to the capacity to neutralize and kill bacteria, hand sanitizers comprising a minimum of 60% alcohol are generally more successful in eradicating germs than washing hands with antibacterial soaps. Nevertheless, if the palms are unclean, oily, or sticky, the ABHS may not be as efficient; hence hand cleaning with soap and water is advised in such situations. It takes about 20 to 30 seconds to apply sanitizer around the palm areas. Hand sanitizer must be applied when hand washing is not available since it would provide a temporary remedy. This may be thought of as a backup plan. When sanitizing the area, 60% ethanol must be utilized at a minimum. Sanitizers can distribute germs since they must not be applied to unclean or oily hands. Sanitizers without alcohol prove to be not as efficient as those containing alcohol. Chemicals in sanitizers without alcohol have the potential to hurt the skin and make it irritating.

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