Paper on The Dark Matter and Dark Energy In the universe include land mass,flora &fauna water masses,stars& other bodies

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The Dark Matter and Dark Energy In the universe

The universe means different things to different people, more so when it comes to what constitute it, the percentage of its different parts, and what it is. Most of the people who are not scientist I included believe the universe is all about what we see and feel. The visible parts include the land mass, flora and fauna water masses, stars, the moon, other planets and other heavenly bodies which can be seen when advanced viewing technology is used to view the outer space. The parts of the universe that we feel that they exist even without seeing them includes the gravitational force and the air masses which is describe by effect of wind as moving air and atmospheric pressures which exerts pressure perpendicularly to the earth’s surface. It had not been clear to many people I still included whether there is existence of invisible components as part of the universe. I personally choose this topic to try and find out whether there is existence of the Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Personally, I don’t believe that there are other parts of the universe that can’t be seen or felt by human beings.

Dark energy is distinguished from the ordinary matter specs such as baryons and radiation because it has a negative pressure against gravitational force. That negative pressure of the dark energy leads to acceleration expansion of the universe (Amendola, L., & Tsujikawa, S. 2010, p.1-5).  According to Amendola, L., & Tsujikawa, S. the dark energy is alleged to occupy 70% of the total present energy in the universe and hence it makes the majority of the total content of the general universe. Dark energy is believed to be very homogeneous and less dense and there is no evidence of it interacting through any of the fundamental forces apart from gravity and it uniformly occupies the empty space of the universe.

Despite the fact that Dark energy cannot be seen or felt by human beings its effectscan be identified and determined by scientists. Friedman and the colleague scientists (2008) discovered that the universe was expanding at a higher rate and the only force resulting to the acceleration in expansion was gravity resistance force which is believed to be the Dark Energy. The group of scientists concluded that Dark energy makes the distance betweenbodies such as planets to keep increasing with time indicating the expansion of the universe.Dark Energy makes up a large majority of the total content of the universe about76 %, Dark Matter occupying 20% and the baryons which comprises of the many visible part of the universe occupies only 4% of the whole universe( JA Friedman et al, 2008)But this was not always known.

The Scientists have not been able to observe the dark matter directly because it does not interact with the baryonic matter and thus making it completely invisible to the light and other electromagnet radiation. The Dark Matter is believed by scientists to be made of invisible or dark materials which are mostly non baryonic or possibly being composed of yet undiscovered subatomic particles(Enclopedia of astronomy).This makes it difficult to directly observe it even using the modern advanced viewing instruments.However, the astronomers studies its effect in the space hence they are confidence in its existence. J. Friedman and his colleagues (2008) believes in its existence indicating that it occupies 20% of the entire universe, while the baryonic occupies, 4% and the bigger 71% is occupied by the dark Energy.

Friendrich Willheld in 1844 detected and announced the existence of a non luminous matter that was invisible and was detected due to its gravitational effect on other heavenly bodies and galaxies (Trimble, V. 1987p.425). The non luminous matter which is believed to be the Dark Matter has effects on the velocities of stars and other heavenly bodies around the sun and in the space depending on their masses making them to move with less velocity.Another evidence of  existence of dark matter is astronomical observations in gravity lensing from the cosmic microwave background, astronomical observations in the observable universe, movement of galaxies among other observations in the universe(Trimble, V.1987, p.425-472). Dark matter is believed to have greatly contributed in formation of heavenly elements in the Universe.  Very recent observations has indicated that dark matter has a role in the formation ofstars (Kenath, A., et al, 2019). Dark matter is classified as cold, warm or hot depending on its free streaming length.

In conclusion, according to science there is evidence that the universe is broader than what an ordinary human being and scientists are aware of. If more studies concerning the universe will be undertaken seriously in the future, particularly with application of the advanced technology in research, there arepossibilities of even more revelations to be made concerning components of the universe. As for today so much concerning the universe still remain in the darkness as far as human beings are concerned. I found there is existence of dark matter in the universe even if scientists have not been able to see it physically due to is interacting nature with the baryons. I also found evidence that there is existence of the dark energy and its effects of accelerating the expansion of the universe and it occupies the largest part of the entire universe while the visible parts (baryons) comprises the smallest percentage.

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