Report for Public Services Criminology Theory- Explaining the characteristics of violent young offenders

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Public Services Criminology Theory


Any act that is deemed to be of criminal nature by the society is associated with a specific theory of criminology that exits relative to the war against the Mexican drug cartel. The aim of this study lies in the analysis of multiple criminal theories that result in the increase of violent crimes on the streets of Mexico due to drug cartels.

Youth violence could be defined as the aggressive actions of youths generally between the ages of 16-24 due to multiple reasons (Ward et al., 2015). However, drug-related youth violence includes the occurrence of repetitive violent acts under the influence of illicit drugs like Crack cocaine, Methamphetamine, MDPV, and others.



1. Explain using criminological theory how the characteristics of violent young offenders differ from those of their victims

The cultural theory of crime essentially provides a framework for the assessment of the influence of social forces, peers and human agency relative to the behaviour of perpetrators and victims (Akers and Jensen, 2017). Based on this theory, the major difference of characteristic includes the urge to act violently under the influence of drugs. Characteristics such as sex essentially do not project a distinct characteristic feature of difference. However, based on the sociological version of the criminology theory, a perpetrator is characterized by the regular forming of violent gangs and active involvement in violence related crimes. However, a victim essentially has no strong gangs. Hence, relative to the social forces, a violent offender is associated with the extremely negative social forces like being on the radar of the law enforcement agencies due to kin being in the cartel (Fox et al., 2015). Additionally, in the segment of the peers, characteristic difference includes less fear of prosecution of any kind due to their age. However, such victims are might have a fear of prosecution. Additionally, in the event that the victim is himself or she associated with the Mexican drug cartel, the aspect of the human agency would come into play. This is because the background the victim influence the personal and the situational choices undertaken which might make someone weak in times of urgency.

2. Evaluation of criminology theory models relative to alcohol-related violence

Based on the recent survey by the law enforcement agencies, Citlali and Lorenzo were ranked as the two of the most dangerous neighbourhoods in Mexico City (Mexico News Daily, 2019). The major reason for the increase in the act of homicides includes extensive consumption of alcohol. Hence, based on the Deterrence and Rationale choice theory model of criminology, it could be deduced that the reduction of alcohol consumption would increase the rationale choice of the individuals. This is because the mentioned model assumes that an individual is a rationale. Hence, one would weigh the prospective results of his actions. Hence, it could be noted that the model is essentially flawed in multiple domains. First, in the domain of the increase of homicides due to alcohol influence, the model fails miserably as alcohol diminishes the rationality of an individual (Calnan et al., 2018). As a result, the assumption itself of the model is false. However, based on the psychological theory of crime, regular exposure to domestic violence as well as extensive parental control contributes to the increase of alcohol consumption. Hence, this model would provide the appropriate framework for extensive research relative to alcohol-related abuse.

3. Evaluation of psycho-pharmacological attributes economic motivation along with a systematic model of drug-related violence

the model is associated with three attributes that form a straight-line approach. The ingestion of the illicit substances causes the development of irresistible demand of the same by the body. In the event that such substances are controlled or not taken by an individual, it causes extensive irrational behaviour (García et al., 2016). As a result, an individual would project violent behavior. This, however, could be against another individual or with self. Hence, it could be deduced, that the mentioned model provides an effective framework of the study of such behaviours. The major advantage associated with the model includes the aspect of violent behaviour due to drugs by all the individuals involved in a scuffle. Additionally, the mentioned model enables the identification of the probability of violent crimes by an individual (Owusu, 2016).

Based on the economic motivation model, the probability of executing a crime includes the economic benefits associated with the same. This segment of the psychopharmacological model projects both benefits and limitations relative to understanding the reasons for crime due to the consumption of drugs. The advantage of the same includes the identification of the possible revenue aspects and the attraction that an individual has for conduction crimes associated with drugs. However, the major limitation includes the potential projection of the high-income opportunities associated with drugs trafficking. For example, the Columbian and the Mexican drug cartel essentially combined their processes to ensure a viable economic model of production, transportation and sales of drugs across the border to the US and in the international market (INSIDER.COM, 2019).

The systematic model of criminology results in the development of organized crime and the development of standard protocols for transportation of the same. The major advantage of this aspect of Psycho-pharmacological model includes identification of common ways of drugs trafficking and associated behaviour of the careers. However, the limitation of the same includes an increase in the probability of bribery. Evidence for the same includes regular changing of Special Forces and agencies that inspect and track such crimes.

4. Analysis of criminology theory relative to hate violence

Hate violence is defined as targeted violence against a particular individual or community. The cause of hate violence could be anything. Relative to the drug cartel of Mexico, hate violence occurs to the stiff competition among the cartels as well as control of the routes used for the transportation of the same (Council on Foreign Relations, 2019). For example, an individual associated with the condition of criminaloid would execute crimes for the passion of it. The economic benefits associated with drug cartel gives rises to an extensive passion for such trades. Individuals like Joaquin Guzman and Pablo Escobar increased the sales of cocaine from Mexico to the United States as well as other nations during the 1960s and the 1970s in which there was poor or little legislation to restrict drug control. Their passion enables the drastic increased of corruption among the bureaucrats coupled with the development of the organized crime in the nation.

Based on the testosterone and the criminal aggressiveness theory of an individual, the criminology theory is associated with the identification of the direct relationship between male hormone-like testosterone with antisocial and aggressive behaviour (Batrinos, 2014). This biochemistry approach is, however, limited with an extensive resource for conduction of any research and developing mathematical models for the analysis of hate crimes.

5. Analysis of criminology theory relative to terrorist violence

According to Hamm’s explanation of the hate and terrorist violence, it could be deduced that hatred is the prime driver of conduction of terrorist violent activities (Lalic, 2016). However, relative to the relationship between US and Mexico, aspects of religion, discrimination, and other motivations could be taken into consideration. In this segment, the strain theory of criminology could be taken into consideration. This would be because; the occurrence of any terrorist activities having roots to the Mexican drug cartel would be associated with multiple strains. It is a known fact that both in the US and Mexico, religious bias, as well as isolation, leads to poor opportunities and poor acceptance of such individuals in the mainstream society. As a result, terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda, Irish Republications and their corresponding activities could be associated with the social disorganization theory. This would be because such organizations work in fringe groups in an international mechanism. As a result, funding for such violence is obtained from minority corporate, individual donation and through other processes.

Based on the above theory, such organizations project a positive aspect of the study of terrorist violence. This would be because; understanding the requirement of each of the groups would enable the identification of the current threats to associate with the same. Additionally, the strain theory would enable the understanding of the projected output provided by the organization.  The limitation of the disorganization theory, however, lies in the extensive adherence to the terrorist organizations and limited attention to smaller groups that have not been accepted internationally as terrorist organizations.


The study resulted in the identification of two concluding statements relative to each of the learning outcomes. First, it could be concluded that multiple criminology model would provide an interlinked relationship with multiple violent crimes conducted by the youth. This would be because crimes associated with the drug cartels of Mexico are associated with young individuals as foot soldiers. Secondly, it could be concluded that hate crimes and terrorist crimes are essential interrelated. This would be because hate is the prime driver for any criminal activity.

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