Assignmnet is about potential ethical issues related to DARPA i.e. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

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The potential ethical issues related to DARPA grand challenge: A list of ethical issues of DARPA grand challenge. 

The DARPA grand challenge is a prize competition conducted by the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) for the American autonomous vehicles. The prime motive for this challenge is to accelerate the improvement of vehicle technology which can be further used for military necessities. However, these technological advancement in military system have certain ethical issues which can have severe consequences on the society and mankind. First, the ethical concern suggests that the use or development of the new robotic vehicles in military operations should not violate the current international law. Second, there are certain safety risk or health risks associated with these autonomous and military robots, such as accidents(Thompson, & Vidas, 2018).. Third, the self-defeating programs installed in these robots enhances the chances of the war to be more likely occur rather than minimising it.Fourth, the autonomous car can also behave as a premeditated homicide. The reason is linked with the fact that self-driving car are programmed and their behaviour or scripted or purposely trained. However, there are many legal liabilities which these autonomous car might not be following. For example, to make judgement whether to sacrifice one person to save five, or to drive over a little girl in order to save the investment of this self-driving car.

Reason why strong AI and weak AI are the same or are not the same

Strong and weak artificial intelligence (AI) defines the capacity of the designed robotic system. The weak AI or narrow AI is the currently available technology which is capable of doing certain tasks but could not totally take over human. They can do repetitive and simple tasks such as analysis or calculations of very large quantity of data. The weak AI has been designed to generate the observer behaviour in an accurate way. These type of AI robots are successful in their respective field but could not compete in the generalised behaviour. Hence, these robots are capable of reprograming itself for performing the general intelligent tasks. These AI are considered weak because they are designed with specific program responses, for example, Alexa and Siri are mainly focused on voice identification and interpretation. However the self-driving cars are also considered as an example of weak AI. The primary focus of weak AI is to develop intelligence which can perform a specific task(Walker, 2015).

On the other hand, the strong AI or general AI is that technology which is designed with mental skills and functions which can imitate the human brain. It is considered to be at the level of what an individual assumes a human intelligence to be. These AI consists of pre-installed programs of human cognitive abilities like self-awareness, consciousness, and sentience. It is that type of AI which has the ability to perform activities without any or human help. In the present time, there is no example of strong AI except the chat robots. These robots are capable of talking to humans despite of any pre-entered program. The primary goal of strong AI is to design such machines which can reduce human dependency for performing various tasks and able to take logical and sensible decisions(Urmson, 2015). 

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