Present assignment focuses on medical conditions of Sarah, suffering from several kidney related disorders

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The functioning of vital organs such as kidney, liver, and heart is pivotal for the conduct of life. The functioning of liver is linked with metabolism, whereas kidney function is to excrete from body. Additionally, deregulation of dysfunctioning are linked with the level of electrolytes and hormones. In the present report, is 63 year old patient, with the concerned medical records is discussed in relation to the physiological complication she's having.  The detailed regulation of hormone and mineral levels in body, the aging issues, the complications related to diabetes mellitus, cardiac disease, and renal functioning disgust.

Low level of Calcium and Sodium 

The patient Sarah is suffering from condition referred as end stage of kidney disease as well as with the complication of pericarditis. In the given medical case, the body retains large amount of fluid which result into dilution of sodium salt. Consequently, the body tends to lose fluids which make the patient to drink more water and cause low level of sodium in blood oh, referred as hyponatremia (Hasona&Elasbali, 2016). 

The medical record also suggests low level of calcium in blood which is accounted for complication such as kidney dysfunction and deficiency of vitamin D. Dysfunctioning in kidney results into more excretion of calcium through urine as well as reduced ability to activate vitamin D. Low level calcium is also a cousin factor for pericarditis, resulting into sharp chest pain.  

Anemia and diagnostic test

Functioning of kidney is responsible for generating hormone called erythropoietin. Kidney also stimulates for producing the red blood cells. In the given case, the patient is suffering from kidney dysfunctioning which results in low level of erythropoietin, as a result of which anemia complication arises (Patel, 2015). 

The diagnostic test called complete blood count CBC, is one of the most common laboratory test used for detecting anemia condition in patients. This test is not only used for detecting the blood count level, but is also helpful in quantitative estimation of blood components. This includes white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, mean corpuscular volume oh, and platelet count. 

Hypotension and homeostasis

The pressure level of 92/64 mmHg, is reflective that the patient is suffering from hypertension condition that is low blood pressure. In general, the normal blood pressure reading varies between 120-80 or 140-90 mmHg. Given the condition that patient is suffering from kidney dysfunctioning and low-level calcium, the complication pericarditis arises which results in two functioning of heart muscles (pericardium). The condition results in two low blood pressure level in the body. In response to this, the body establishes internal homeostasis to maintain the blood pressure. This is managed internally by factors such as steady-state blood level pressure, body temperature, pH level of body fluids, and glucose concentration (Kei, 2017). 

Acid base disorder

According to the pH level of body fluids, two major type of acid base disorder happens. This includes acidosis - a condition which occurs when there is a significant-level decrease in pH level of body fluids resulting into acidification. Another condition is alkalosis - which is the body pH increases to a significant level.  It should be noted that the basic or acidic condition is mainly reflected in blood. According to the given medical records, Sarah the body pH level us reflective to be 7.28 which is a condition of alkalosis. In order to manage the situation, she should drink plenty of water containing electrolytes which can maintain the balance of salt and corresponding pH in the body. 

ADH and glucose levels

ADH refers to antidiuretic hormone, which can be found in high-level in blood due to certain factors. Firstly, since Sarah is consuming drugs for diabetes mellitus - Glisten, The increased ADH level result the drug effects. Another factor responsible is physiological disorder related to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. The medical records also shows that the glucose level in Sarah is high, which is attributed to keeping the medications lower the glucose level and/or skipping the insulin dose. These are the possible factors that are responsible for elevated ADH and glucose level (Johnson, 2016). 

Low vitamins level on body

The medical report shows a low level of vitamin A, D, E, and K. The physical conditions such as end-stage kidney disorder and diabetes mellitus are linked with the low-level vitamin D. The problem concerning with muscle pain is because of the deficiency of vitamin E in the body. Additionally, the abnormal vitamin K level is also responsible for reduced secretion of aldosterone which then leads to low blood pressure and fatigue. This is also linked with the reduced secretion of renin, because of which the patient is suffering from hypertension and other muscle related weakness (Lee, 2015). Decreased level of vitamin A is also responsible for haematopoiesis.

Low calcium level in body

A lower calcium level in body fluid will result into enhanced secretion of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands. The normal level of calcium in blood ranges from 9.0 to 10.0. For the feedback mechanism of body physiology, parathyroid glands check the calcium level not only in body fluid but also in bone as density. During the condition when the calcium level of body drops, the cells in parathyroid gland sense and releases the hormone (Morris, 2015). Upon release of the hormone, it is then transmitted to the full body and maintains the calcium quantity in blood.  

Physical symptoms and its physiological reason

The yellowish color of skin is the sign of jaundice which result from poor excretion of bilirubin and biliverdin pigment from the body. Skin discoloration and formation of sclera is related to aging symptoms. The end stage renal disease is responsible for this balance of electrolytes and retention of excessive fluid in the body. The blood vessels underlying the tissues are becoming more delicate and fragile, which is related to aging problem. The renal problem is also responsible for edema in body (Paller, 2015). Abnormal level of calcium and potassium in body is responsible with muscle pain and weakening of pericardium which results for the cardiac problem.

Diagnosis of Stool and urine color

Poor metabolism of bile salts that is bilirubin and biliverdin by the liver is responsible for the coloring of stools. This results this results in two for excretion of bile pigments from the body, resulting in two gray or dark colored stool, yellowing of body, and discoloration of skin. This also indicates that the functioning of liver, pancreas, and gallbladder is not proper in the patient. The medical report related to White coloring of urine is can be linked with a functioning as well as urinary tract infection (Pagana and Pagana, 2017). Moreover, this is a common symptom associated with people suffering from diabetes mellitus.

Glisten and its function

Glisten is one of the highly recommended medicine prescribed for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This is a DPP-4 inhibitor which works on the beta cells of pancreas. The prescribed medicine work on the beta cells of pancreas, thereby stimulating the production, storage, and release of insulin in the body (Bellelli, 2018). Glisten is Bassoon to block the ATP dependent potassium channels present in the beta cells, which act on lowering of blood glucose level. As a result of negative feedback inhibition, the corresponding secretion of insulin gets stimulated. 


The present report describes the medical condition of patient named Sarah (63 years old), who is suffering from several disorders related to kidney dysfunctioning, diabetes mellitus, and pericarditis. Based on the given medical records, the analysis for various physiological conditions and their regulation are Illustrated in this report. Also there are issues such as anemia, hypertension, acidosis and alkalosis, hyponatremia and hypocalcemia which are discussed related to the factors and the impact on the physiological functioning. The discussion in the report is believed to be important for healthcare readers, based on which the analysis for the medical condition can be justified.

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