The report illustrates Role of Fathers In Support Of Breastfeeding to support their wives in every possible way

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Role of Fathers In Support Of Breastfeeding

1.            ABSTRACT:

Breastfeeding is a common problem of number of women these days, as they face a lot of troubles and hurdles while performing this activity, therefore, to overcome their problems, it is the key role of fathers to support their wives in every possible way, and make their lives easier. In order to understand about the trends and culture of our society, we have conducted on-field surveys of the locality of Gujar Khan, and observed the trends, types of problems and mindsets pf people regarding this major issue of breastfeeding. Most of the fathers, that we have performed our survey on, explained that they are mostly engaged in earning bread and butter for their families, and run the monthly errands, while lack of education has also been observed as a major factor for lack of support from fathers. To overcome such problems and issues of our society, it is key role of our government and also our health practitioners that proper guidance, knowledge and education must be provided to fathers specially, so that they could support their partners in facilitating the idea and concept of breastfeeding and ensure a healthy lifestyle of his family.


2.            INTRODUCTION:

Breastfeeding, is an extremely important phenomenon and a phase of both mother’s and father’s life, as it demands a lot of attention, knowledge and care. Breastfeeding mothers are more likely to be prone for various symptomatic conditions as a result of breastfeeding. Since, it has been analyzed from number of researches and studies, that breastfeeding is a complicated process for a mother, as the mother feels immense pain due to sucking out of milk from her breast by the baby. Also, the milk that is being sucked by the baby, possess enormous amount of nutrients that are taken from mother’s own body nutrients and fluids. That is the reason, that breastfeeding mothers mostly feel themselves drowsy and dizzy all the time, and also number of women have been reported with chest pain, constant feeling of weakness etc. in order to overcome such complications, it is extremely important that a father must understand and gain knowledge regarding the whole process of breastfeeding and also about the consequences that occur to the mother as a result of breastfeeding. Spreading awareness among fathers regarding this issue will help to give them a better understanding of their partner’s problems and difficulties that she is going through. (Sherriff N 2014)

Breast milk is an essential nutrient for the newborn specifically, as it is clinically proven and tested that children who get enough and sufficient amount of breast milk at least up to 6 months of after their birth, tend to be more active physically and mentally. Researchers and scientists have performed various researches on the importance of breastfeeding in infants. Breast milk contains all the essential nutrients that are required for the long term good health and proper developmental growth of infants. It not only helps in growth and development, but it also contains some of the important antibodies that are transferred into the newborns, and protect them from numerous diseases, as neonates are more prone to be attacked by number of bacterial and viral diseases because of weak immune system. Breast milk helps the infant to develop a stronger immune system and keep the baby strong and healthy for the rest of their lives. Breast milk has also been found to be effective against certain diseases like type 2 diabetes, children who are fed on breast milk do not get obese at their adolescent or adult age. Apart from protection from the diseases, it also helps the mother to get recovered from postpartum depression. (Sherriff N 2014)

Fathers play a very important role in the phenomenon of breastfeeding by mother, since giving birth to a child and raising that child is responsibility of both father and mother, therefore it is necessary that men should take equal part in fulfilling those responsibilities.


There are also numerous precautionary measures and things to be taken care of by fathers, which will help their partners out, to execute this process with more comfort and ease.

             Normally, we have a concept in our society that fathers are not associated with the process of breastfeeding, and this is the job that is confined to mothers only. Although it is, but still there are number of precautions that must be taken care of by them, in order to keep their partners healthy and safe. Fathers play a very important role in the process of breastfeeding, and might help to make the internal family bonding stronger and successful. (Higgins n.d.)

             Fathers are considered as the main and basic pillar of the entire family, although mothers also play equally important role, but fathers are specifically responsible for keeping the whole family unit in order. Therefore, it is necessary for health care units, that proper endorsement of awareness campaigns must be done, which will help the men of our society to gain proper and brief knowledge regarding their responsibilities and role towards breast feeding mothers. (Sherriff N 2014)

             When a father will be fully aware of the health requirements of both mother and baby, he will ultimately prioritize everything accordingly, such as proper management of household chores will be made, and all of these household chores will be organized, managed, and distributed in such a way that his partner may get enough time to properly breastfeed her baby. If a father will have a sound knowledge regarding health benefits of breastfeeding, and the need of the baby to be constantly stay with mother, he will automatically endorse this activity and make things easier and comfortable for his partner and the baby, to facilitate and promote a safe and sound process of breastfeeding. (Higgins n.d.)

             Fathers must be equally supportive to their partners, and must help their wives in every way. Since, we have observed that breastfeeding is quiet a difficult process, both in terms of physical and emotional difficulties, for mother specifically. Soon after the childbirth, women normally face a lot of hormonal, physical and mental changes in their body, this might lead them to be a victim of postpartum depression. Number of cases have been reported as well, in which mothers get themselves engaged in severe depression, due to which they get numb and unable to perform their daily activities. In such cases, it is the core responsibility of the husband to take good care of his wife, and help her out both physically and emotionally, so that she could collect herself in a better position as soon as possible. If a moter won’t be fit and healthy, physically and mentally, it will ultimately affect the baby’s health, that is the reason that fathers must take care of their partners so that baby’s proper growth and nourishment can be ensured. (Higgins n.d.)

             When mothers feel themselves getting helplessly tired and exhausted from overwhelming responsibilities of the newborn, then fathers must always be there to help her out and take responsibility of the baby completely, ensure her proper sleep and comfort. When a mother will feel comfortable and at ease, it will ultimately affect the smooth process of breastfeeding. (Higgins n.d.)

             A breastfeeding mother must be provided with all the nourishments and fluids, that will help her to promote her good health, and also the proper nutrients that are required for producing enormous amount of milk, so that the baby will be fed sufficiently, must be provided to mothers. (Sherriff N 2014)

             Fathers can also help their wives to take the charge of the baby, after the baby is completely breastfed by mother. It is also very important, that a direct contact must be made between father and children, as it will promote more attachment and closeness between them. Research has revealed that human body possesses a neuro-endocrine system, which is completely dependent on the sociality and bi-parental care. Children who have been brought up in a proper and complete care of both father and more, have tend to be found emotionally strong, confident, active and have better resilience in terms of both physically and psychologically. (Higgins n.d.)

These are some of the important aspects that must be considered by fathers and also they should be aware and informed regarding their responsibilities and duties towards their wives. Fathers should also be taught about the importance and necessity of breastfeeding by mothers to their infants, so that they will be more conscious towards the endorsement of this process.


Researchers have revealed that most of the mothers, who had paternal support for breastfeeding, tend to be found more active physically and emotionally. When the father completely supports and helps his wife with various daily responsibilities, particularly after the birth of baby, and tries to provide an easy and comforting environment to their wives, mothers are tend to provide a better environment to the infant as well. Researches have revealed that those men who support their wives in taking the decision of breastfeeding, have been likely to have their partners fulfilling their babies’ needs and requirements successfully. (Datta J 2012)

But, the dilemma in our society is that normally paternal guidance and education have been lacking in our country and society since ages. Due to this reason, there are no such awareness programs and campaigns for fathers, which will help them to understand the amount of support mothers, need to have from their partners, in order to fulfill the desired needs and demands of their baby. (A. 2017) Also, number of women goes through postpartum depression after each child birth, this may lead to severe devastating effects as mothers do not remain in their normal state of mind and gets numb, all of these symptoms, conditions and their treatment, must be educated to their partners, so that, even if the conditions get worsen, the situation can be handled properly. This may only happen when here will be proper awareness campaigns in our society for fathers, and educate them to deal with such consequences. (A. 2017)

Educational classes and proper guidance regarding childcare, breastfeeding, postpartum depression, aftereffects of childbirth, complications and their treatments, and also preventive measures, that must be taken by the father in case of any emergency condition, must be taught to fathers, to overcome the problems, that mothers have to face alone. (A. 2017)

According to Laleche ‘it is a fortunate baby that has a close, loving relationship with both of his parents’. (Laleche 2004)


The research and analysis that we have performed over a certain group of people, including both male and female i.e. both fathers and mothers, we have observed some of the difficulties, faced by parents, while breastfeeding. Most importantly, there are number of problems that a mother as to face due to breastfeeding. Some of these difficulties include, the baby is not having enough feed, this difficulty arises due to the reason that baby is not liking the type or taste of the milk, that mother possess. Or another reason for baby not taking mother’s milk is that, some mothers do not produce sufficient amount of milk to fulfill the food and nutritional requirements of the baby, due to this reason, babies tend to get tired of sucking but not enough amount of milk comes out of their breast. Another difficulty that mothers had to face was the immense amount of pain and pressure they feel while the baby is trying to suck the milk out of their breast. The procedure is immensely painful and it may lead to infections as well. Number of mothers has been encountered who dropped feeding their babies, solely because of the immense amount of pain that they feel when baby is trying to suck out the milk. (Laleche 2004)

Number of babies have also been reported, who developed colic distress and sleeping difficulties because of pain in stomach, due to this reason, mothers have also been observed to be avoiding giving breast feed to the babies, and switching to top feed.

Role of fathers in such cases have been reported to be really important, as mothers who attain a complete support system from their spouses, tend to be more relaxed, flexible and at ease in the process of giving breastfeed to their infants. Sessions for father’s education must be held, and they should be educated completely, in order to provide a safe and sound environment to their spouses, and also they should help and support their wives in decision making of providing breastfeed or top feed to their infants. (A. 2017)


The core objective and major goal of this study and research work, is to find out the problems and difficulties that are going on in our society with regard to provision of breast milk to newborn babies. As we have observed this from our research analysis, that most of the mothers avoid breastfeeding their infants, because of the enormous amount of pain they feel in their breasts, sometimes cracked nipples have also been reported, while in some cases there is a continuous release of milk has been observed, which ultimately lead to infections and wounds over breasts. Some of the women have also been reported with the case of release of milk from one breast only. Due to this problem, the pressure over a single breast increases and thus it will also lead to infection on one breast of mothers. Apart from these difficulties, women also feel immense weakness, due to which they always seem to be drowsy and dizzy soon after giving birth to a baby. (Higgins n.d.)

There are a lot more reasons, some of them have been encountered because of patient’s visits, and our survey, while some of the difficulties faced by these women are still not known by many of us. The reason that we are performing a detailed research and analysis over this topic, is that, fathers should get equal awareness regarding problems and difficulties that woman has to face due to breastfeeding, and as a result, they should equally participate in all the activities that are related to taking care of their spouses and providing them a healthy environment, in which they could comfortably provide breastfeed to their infants and ensure his health as well. Fathers, must also keep a detailed check on their wives problems, and must always be prepared to make their wives visit to the doctors regularly, so that in case of emergence of any infection or diseased condition, it should be immediately encountered and treated and also fathers must be equally concerned regarding health of the baby and should have regular visits to child specialists as well, to ensure quality life and better health facilities and perfect standard of living to their babies. (Higgins n.d.)


The survey analysis that we have performed, mainly included fathers of all age. Most of the men that we have perform or survey on, have observed to be eagerly interested in gaining knowledge regarding problems and difficulties that might occur during pregnancy, and after birth of the baby, particularly in the process of breast feeding. Most of the fathers have found themselves helpless, as most of the healthcare providers do not seem to be interested in educating fathers regarding the whole process and duration of pregnancy, pros and cons, the consequences that might occur, and also what measures must be taken after giving birth to the baby. Most of these healthcare providers only focus on giving education to women only, and in such cases, we have observed that fathers seem to be feeling left out and isolated in such conditions, and considered themselves a bit distant from mothers and from the baby, as they do not have any information and knowledge regarding raising a child, and what things must be taken care of, of mother and baby after birth. (Datta J 2012)

One of the reasons of lack of education of fathers, regarding the whole process of pregnancy is, their tough schedule and office timings, due to which number of visits of fathers to the doctors have observed to be declined greatly.   Therefore, fathers usually lack in terms of education regarding health issues of their partners and infants.

In order to overcome such problems and lacking, it is important that healthcare providers, must arrange number of seminars, classes and presentations on the topic of childbirth, pregnancy, birth of the baby, and then afterbirth problems and difficulties that might arise, especially during breastfeeding. Regular visits of fathers must also be ensured by the doctors, so that they may easily educated mothers as well as fathers, as both of them should be equally accountable and considerate regarding birth of the baby and difficulties caused during this process.

Some fathers highlighted this issue, that they wanted health care professionals, to educate them along with mothers, as they feel disregarded when it comes to making important decisions about pregnancy, breastfeeding or any other problems, and they complained that mostly mothers are the ones who get proper and detailed education and information about every aspect of pregnancy and childbirth. If information will be provided to both of these spouses, it will be easier to bring up a child into this world and also raising a child will be easier for them, as both of them will be fully aware regarding health issues and concerns of the baby and mother. (Datta J 2012)


A literature survey have revealed that women whose spouses supported them throughout the duration of pregnancy and also after giving birth to the baby, tend to be more active and provided breastfeed to their infants for more than 6 months, while, women who did not receive any support from their spouses, have observed to be quitting breastfeeding in only a month or two. This has showed us that it is important for a father to support their wives throughout the process of growth and development of the baby, so that mothers could easily breastfeed their babies for longer durations. The reason of enforcing breastfeeding by mothers to babies is that, number of researches and scientific studies have revealed the problems and consequences that have been occurred due to lack of provision of breast milk to babies. Number of diseases has been encountered in babies, and especially appearance of several symptoms has also been observed when the babies grow into adult age. The core reason of this greater number of arising diseases is weaker immune systems. Breast milk contains strong antibodies which helps the infant to grow a stronger immune system within their bodies. Thus, stronger the immune system lesser will be the number of disease attacks to children. (Sherriff N 2014)

Apart from antibodies, breast milk also possesses a huge amount of nutrients and minerals, which will be sufficient to grow safe and healthy children. But, as we have encountered in some cases, that women who are not physically fit and healthy, does not possess sufficient amount of nutrients to fulfill the nutritional requirements of the baby, in such cases, it becomes important to give top feed to the babies, so that a baby could easily grow in a healthier manner and all of his nutritional requirements must be fulfilled. (Sherriff N 2014)

3.            LITERATURE REVIEW:

Number of researches that have already been performed over this topic, we have reviewed thoroughly. We have performed a detailed analysis, applied proper research methodologies, and observed number of peer reviewed journals, articles, websites, and numerous books over the topic of support of fathers on the issue of breastfeeding. Although breastfeeding is an extremely important topic of new parents, for both father and mother, but still, with the help of our research studies, we came to a conclusion that most of the health care professionals, lack greatly in this department that they do not consider it necessary that men should be equally educated and taught regarding different aspects, stages and events of pregnancy as women. (A. 2017)

In order to promote the concept of breastfeeding and to increase the number of women who consider breastfeeding as a priority, and should not go for giving topfeed to their infants, number of factors are involved in it. First of all, there must be a positive attitude of both father and mother towards this concept of breastfeeding, and in this way, it will be promoted in a greater way in our society. Positive attitude mainly reflects upon the factors like whether breastfeeding will be initiated by the mother or not, and also, what will be the duration of breastfeeding. Some mothers have been observed that they enthusiastically initiated the process of breastfeeding to their babies in the beginning of their birth, but soon after they start to face problems and difficulties while breastfeeding, they immediately switch to the formula milk powders, and start providing topfeed to their infants. (A. 2017)

A research has been performed over the factors that contribute in building up a positive attitude among father and mother to promote the process of breastfeeding. These factors have been described below:

             There must be a positive aspiration within both mother and father, to feed their baby in front of the people, in public places or at home. When both mother and father will be fully aware of the benefits of breast milk, and disadvantages if breast milk will not be provided to their baby, then they will never hesitate to feed their baby at home or even in public. Fathers, must be specially educated regarding the issue that might occur if breast milk is not provided to the baby, so that they will try to promote this activity on a greater level and make the environment and surroundings feasible and easier for their spouse.

             Health professionals also play a very important role in promoting breast feeding phenomenon. It is the key responsibility of doctors, physicians, gynecologists and other health care providers, that they must educate both of them regarding health benefits of breast milk, in such a way that both of them fully understand the need of breastfeeding to their infant, and also, fathers must not feel threatened or ashamed in asking any questions or queries regarding such issues to the doctors. Gynecologists must provide a proper education to fathers as well so that they will not feel isolated or left out.

             Along with the positive attitude of fathers, it is also a responsibility of other family members to understand the need of breastfeeding of mother to her baby. When members of the family will be considerate regarding mother’s and baby’s health, then they will also try to provide more comfort and facilities to both of them, so that proper nourishment and growth of the baby can be ensured.

             Certain modifications, must also be made in our society and culture, to facilitate the mothers and promote breastfeeding culture i.e. certain areas must be restricted within a café, marketplaces, workplaces and other areas of the town, in which mothers can easily go and feed their babies without any hesitation. In this way, the culture of breastfeeding will be promoted greatly. (Sherriff N 2014)


There are number of factors involved, which causes lack of interest of women in breastfeeding their infants, and also number of fathers have also been reported who does not promote the concept of breastfeeding. The major and foremost factor, as explained by fathers, particularly the teenager men, have been the role of breasts for the purpose of sexualisation. This fact is understood, that tension appears for some men, when it comes to the role of breasts for sexualisation, or role of breast as a source of natural process i.e. production and release of milk out of it. Some men, consider to not talk about such issues with their doctors or gynecologists, and find themselves uncomfortable in discussing such issues. But, survey reports have shown us that men feel comfortable in talking about such issues that are related to their sex life, and their baby’s needs and requirements, only with those men who have been gone through the similar situation as theirs. Also, men should be properly counseled regarding such issues privately, so that they could understand the concepts more clearly and also put forward any of their queries if they have any of them. This might play a very important role for the doctors and physisicans, to perform research and survey regarding various aspects that becomes obstacles in breastfeeding process. The major factor has been lack of knowledge of people. (A. 2017)

It has been argued and verified by a number of men of our society, that if we talk about the term breast in front of heterosexual men, the first thing that will come up in their minds is the role of breast as a symbol of sexualization. People do not often consider the natural and original purpose of breast, which is breastfeeding. According to a study, the magazines that usually portray the standard and idealized image of a women, is usually represented as, these women are wearing such clothes in which their slightly open cleavage is showing off, push up bras, transplants and other methods, through which breast enlargement, enhancement and prominence and be made visible are adopted by women, in order to make their body image more appealing and fascinating towards men. Number of women have gone through various processes of breast transplants, or breast enlargement in order to enhance their overall appearance, to attract men for sexualization, but, if we consider role of breasts for the natural process of breastfeeding, least number of women have seemed to be concerned about it, and most of them preferred to provide their babies topfeed rather than breastfeed, so that their breast will not become out of shape and size. (Sayers 2013)


Numerous fathers and mothers believe on various myths that have been followed since decades, but nobody pays attention towards their authenticity. For this reason, survey conductance must be performed, to have a detailed research regarding various myths that people have believed and because of those myths, they take certain actions which negatively affect children’s health, growth and proper childcare.

             One of these myths with respect to breastfeeding is, breast size enlargement may occur due to excessive breastfeeding. Many women have been observed that they avoid giving breast milk to their infants merely because of the reason that their breast enlargement might occur, which will give a negative impression of their overall appearance. Such queries of these women must be cleared by the doctors, and they must counsel these women and men also, to promote the idea of breastfeeding and do not keep their baby away from this blessing.

             Women also believe that breastfeeding will cause sleep disturbances in their baby, while actually this is not true. Sleeping early at night does not relate with breast feeding process in any way. Babies usually sleep when they find their appropriate timings and routine to sleep, breastfeeding process does not effect on the sleep cycle of the baby.

             There is also a myth regarding breastfeeding that some mothers do not produce enough and sufficient amount of milk, too fulfill the nutritional requirements of their baby. Actually, the myth is not true, most of the mothers possess sufficient amount of milk in their breasts, but the mere and sole reason of the baby not having enough milk is poor latching by the babes. Therefore, it is important that during pregnancy, there must some expert who should guide these women properly regarding the process of breast feeding and latching properly so that mothers would be able to provide sufficient amount of milk to their infants and baby could also easily latch out the milk from their mothers.

             Women also consider breast feeding as a difficult task and think that they would not be able to continue providing sufficient amount of milk to their babies. This is actually not true, breastfeeding might be a bit difficult initially, but once the mother gets used to it the process is way easier and also beneficial to the baby. Women are normally scared because of the concept of breastfeeding due to lack of support from the fathers or other family members, if all the family members and her spouse support her greatly, then the decision making of breastfeeding will become quiet easier for mothers.

             According to a myth, breast milk does not contain sufficient amount of iron, to fulfill the iron requirements of their infants. this myth is absolutely wrong. Mother’s breast milk is the best source of nutrition for their infants, and contains enormous amount of iron, minerals and other nutrients that are required for the baby to fulfill his needs and requirements. (Neifert 2009)

In order to avoid these myths to be spreading among individuals, it is the mere responsibility of healthcare practitioners to provide sufficient knowledge about pregnancy and breastfeeding to both parents and avoid believing in such theories which do not hold any authenticity are not researched.


In order to provide enough and sufficient amount of knowledge to both father and mother, certain following things must be taken care of by the health care professionals and nutritionist’s:

             Fathers must be acknowledged, about the importance of their role in support of breastfeeding, so that they could feel a level of responsibility they possess towards their partners. (A. 2017)

             It must be ensured that all of the communications and information regarding breast feeding support, is particularly targeted to fathers so that they could observe the importance of breastfeeding for their children. (Sherriff N 2011)

             The sensitive timings for fathers must be adjusted according to their office work hours, and this problem should be considered as a genuine one. In order to engage the fathers in such classes, sessions and events it is important that possible adjustments must be made according to their life routine, office timings and other different factors must also be considered. The reason being, that father are the ones who must be educated properly regarding different aspects and issues of pregnancy and breastfeeding so that they could make the environment easier for their partners. (Sherriff N 2011)

             It is also very important, that proper assistance must be provided to fathers regarding number of myths and misconceptions that have been followed in our society since decades, and all of these misconceptions must be cleared by the physicians in a single class. (Sherriff N 2011)

             It is also very important that single-sex sessions must be conducted, in which only fathers will be invited and they will be educated with the help of an expert male facilitator and speaker. The reason to promote parallel single-sex sessions is that, fathers should feel comfortable in asking about their own theories and misconceptions that have been build up in their minds regarding pregnancy and breastfeeding. (Sherriff N 2011)

             Proper and detailed activities must be conducted, in which both fathers and mothers must be educated about the expectations that they have, must be solved realistically. Most of the fathers are anxious about mother’s welfare and well-being. Their misconceptions about mother’s complications like nipple pains, mastitis, confidence, guilt and stress must be cleared out in such sessions and events, so that the activity of breastfeeding can be promoted. (A. 2017)

             The issue regarding sexualisation of breasts must be highlighted specifically and separate i.e. single-sex sessions must be conducted to educated both father and mother, so that they could raise such personal questions and queries which they hesitate to ask around in front of people like sexual and body image issues. (Sherriff N 2011)

             The attitude and behavior of healthcare professionals towards education of fathers about such issues, is more than negative. They do not consider the father’s need to be educated about such issues. There are number of organizations to overcome this problem, and in these organizations fathers of every type like low-income, busy-scheduled, school-age fathers, blacks and minority ethnic fathers are educated and facilitated in every aspect, and these organizations are also willing to help these fathers in every possible way they can. (Neifert 2009)

             Fathers must also be educated about the personal issues that they might have about breastfeeding. The important and foremost issue that we have observed, is the concept of deflating or losing the perfect shape of the breast of mothers have been reported by both fathers and mothers as well. as we all know that breasts are a symbol of sexualisation as well, therefore fathers are equally concerned regarding fulfillment of their needs and desires as mothers are, about maintaining their perfect figure. To overcome this problem, private sessions must be provided by healthcare providers and their gynecologists to both father and mother, in which they could ask all of their personal questions and clear out the queries of their minds that they hesitate to ask in group sessions. (Sherriff N 2011)


The literature and survey journals that are provided to acknowledge and aware fathers particularly, must use the term ‘father’ instead of ‘parents’. The reason of using the term father is to emphasize and make the fathers attentive towards such issues that must be taken care by them merely. By using the term father, it will be helpful for the men to understand their role properly, as well as a clear message will be delivered to them, regarding support that must be provided by them to their wives to make the breastfeeding process much easier. Jarold Johnston, who was a certified nurse midwife and also a lactation consultant, wrote a section in the book named as ‘Breastfeeding in Combat Boots: A survival guide to successful breastfeeding while serving in the military by Robin Rauche Paul. The section was entitled with the topic of ‘Dads and Breastfeeding’. In this section of the book, a detailed description of different signs and signals that are made by the babies, which may be easily identified by the fathers particularly, that whether the baby is hungry, sleepy, or in pain. The section of this book will help fathers to understand the baby sign language, and thus help their wives on different occasions like helping her change the baby’s diapers at night, understanding the baby’s cry for hunger, sleep or pain and ultimately take prompt measures which will be helpful for their partner and the baby as well. explaining about the hunger cycle of a baby, Jarold mentioned in this section, that a normal cycle of a baby is based upon 8 to 12 different times per day, that he will be crying out of hunger and will ask you in his sign language for food, and this food demands arises after every 4 hours interval all day long. The author has also described about how a father might help his wife to carry out the process of latching and also how to recognize that whether it is a good latch or not. A perfect sign for a good latch include, touching of infant’s chin and nose to the mother’s breast.

Another sign for a perfect latch include, following condition of a baby. The baby’s cheek must be rounded at the tieme of latching and dimpled at all, also the chin must be open wide and the lips must be flared both from top and bottom. If there will be an ideal condition and position of latching by the baby, then mother will feel no pain, inflammation, pressure or any other type of difficult experience during the process of latching. (Sayers 2013)



Number of classes and sessions must be conducted by the professional educators, in order to educate the fathers about different aspects of breastfeeding in which they might help their partners out. Researchers named Wolfberg and his colleagues, performed a brief and thorough research on the trends of breastfeeding by observing a précised number of fathers with their survey. The survey and experimental process conducted on these men, included the participants who were going to be fathers soon. In this process, two categories have been made by them, one of them is known as controlled group, in which proper classes based on knowledge and information regarding the infant’s growth was provided, while the other category which is known as experimental group, was composed of the lectures regarding infant’s growth and also importance and benefits of breastfeeding. (Sayers 2013)

Both of the classes, for both types of groups, were conducted by a same peer educator, who provide detailed knowledge about this particular subject, arousal of open ended questions, friendly and informal discussions in which all of the issues and concerns by these men were raised, and they were also getting answered by the educator openly, so that the fathers might understand each and every single aspect of motherhood clearly. Both of these clases include long sessions of information and discussions among each other, so that any of their query or misconception might be cleared. (Nayeri. F 2015)

The experimental process continued up to 8 months after birth of the baby, and the wives belonging to men of both categories were surveyed and analyzed. It has been observed that the process of breastfeeding, with the wives of those men belonging to experimental group, enhanced up to 74%, while the men belonging to controlled group, we able to help their wives in breastfeeding by only 41%. The results have clearly shown that the more knowledge and awareness will be provided to the people, more positive results will be obtained in our society, and ultimately it will also help to bring a bright and healthy future for our children. (Sayers 2013)


The reason that we have performed a detailed and thorough research over this topic is that, infants and neonates have been observed to be suffering from number of diseases. Either the appearance of these diseases occurs by birth, or the babies get sick after birth in early months of their age. One of the core reasons of this sickness and lack of stronger immunity is insufficient provision of good quality feed, i.e. milk to these infants. Majority of women have been observed to be feeding their infants formula milk, due to certain reasons. Research has been performed over the benefits and advantages of breast milk over formula milk, and physicians and doctors have been proving this fact since decades, that in every possible way, breast milk is better for the baby as compared to formula milk. However, in some cases, where breast milk is not provided to infant due to natural reasons, like if there is no sufficient amount of production of breast mil, then doctors recommend the mothers to switch over to formula milk so that nutritional requirements of the baby can be fulfilled. But, apart from such conditions, breast milk is always preferred over formula milk. (Neifert 2009)

However, fathers also play a very important role in the process of breastfeeding, and they should be supporting their wives in every aspect of maternity services and nursing. To highlight the importance of a father’s role in breastfeeding, it is necessary that proper guidance and knowledge must be provided to them, and they may also get guidance with this research paper as well.



According to our observations, we have concluded a hypotheses, in order to support the sole purpose and reason of performing research and analysis over this topic. The hypotheses that we have concluded explains that ‘Fathers play a very important role in decision making of breastfeeding’. This statement has been thoroughly researched and analyzed, in order to know about the cultural norms and concepts of our society, so that we may also get awareness regarding what people think about father’s role in support of breastfeeding.

The core objective of this research was to find out the answers of these following questions, after completion of this study.



The core objective and purpose of this study, was to emphasize upon the role of fathers, in various maternity services and support, to their wives. The research article is directed toward the role of health practitioners as well, whose mere responsibility is to aware both fathers and mothers regarding their respective roles in different maternity and nursing processes. In this way, we will observe better provision of nourishments and food requirements to our young ones, and thus they will be protected from numerous diseases which have been arising since past few years. The research is also directed towards the misconceptions and lack of knowledge of fathers about teir role in support of breastfeeding, that they think breastfeeding is the mere job of women, and men cannot help them out in any way. Some of the fathers also feel isolated, because of the process of breastfeeding and consider their spouses to get closer and attached to the infants. such misconceptions must be cleared out of their minds, by health practitioners specifically, and they should teach men how they could help and support their wives in this process, so that they will also feel participated in each of their baby’s activities for its growth and development. (Al Furaikh 2017)

6.2 STUDY DESIGN: The questionnaire was distributed among number of individuals who took participation in this survey program, and the questionnaire was filled in the form of paper distribution in local nurseries and other online groups, in which participation of fathers was ensured properly, in order to generate a data analysis, based on the perspectives of fathers about breastfeeding. Both the questionnaire paper, and online questionnaire also contained a consent form, which was signed initially by each individually, in order to take allowance and permission from these respective participants.


The area that we have chosen in order to perform our research analysis, and coductance of surveys, is Gujar Khan. The city is located in Punjab, which is the largest province of Pakistan in terms of population. The city is located at 32.6 latitude and 73.30 longitude, also it is situated at elevation of 457 meters above sea level. The estimated population according to current census conducted in the area, was found to be approximately 69,374, making it the 59th niggest city in Punjab. The city usually follows the IST time zone, which means that it follows the time zone same as Lahore.


The overall duration of our research survey and analysis, was approximated utpo 15 days, including literature surveys, on-field surveys, sample data collection, data analysis etc. in this process, number of fathers were not only surveyed regarding their views, but also provision of classes was ensured to them, so that we may observe the effects of knowledge and education provided to them, that whether these educational classes made any difference in their lives or not.


The data we have collected was mainly restricted to the surveys that have been performed of number of hospitals present in the locality, private clinics, and maternity homes. The reason of visiting these private clinics and maternity home is that, easy provision of individuals can be ensured, which might eagerly agree to help us out in understanding the father’s concepts regarding their role in support of breastfeeding. Number of individuals including fathers, or to-be fathers was surveyed, and results and analysis of the provided data have been performed to analyze the situation of people of Gujar Khan, about what perspective they possess in their minds about breastfeeding women.


Sample size

A rough estimate has been taken of around 45 individuals who took part in this activity have been surveyed and analyzed regarding various aspects they possess in their minds about breastfeeding of women. out of these 45 individuals, the number of men who have become fathers of 2 or 3 children was 15, number of those who were soon to become fathers was also 19, while 11 number of women have also been brought under consideration for performing our survey on, in order to know what difficulties they face because of lack of support from their husbands in the process of breastfeeding.

 Sample methods:

The samples that have been taken from these interested individuals, who were eager to take part in this activity, appeared to be in the form of paper based research questionnaires, these questionnaires were distributed to these individuals, in order to have a knowledge about their perspective. Also, group discussions were also organized, so that the fathers can easily have a detailed and open discussion with healthcare providers and practitioners, about various issues, and queries that they had about different aspects of maternal healthcare and also breastfeeding of mothers to their infants.

7.            METHOD:

Since the topic of our research method, involves particularly around men, therefore the main audience that have been targeted for our survey analysis consists of men mostly, but some of the women have also been included in this survey to understand their views about role of fathers in support of breastfeeding, as well. Most of the men that we have selected belonged to the category of married individuals, despite of the fact that whether they have become fathers or not. The reason of selecting such people for our survey analysis, is to understand the problems that men consider as hurdles, to understand and acknowledge their role that must be played by them to support the concept of breastfeeding. Also, those married men who have become fathers, were also conducted through this survey analysis to have an understanding about their perspective of their role that they must play in support of breastfeeding. It has also been researched, that whether married men take any part in supporting their wives with breastfeeding or not.

A total number of approximately 45 men and women were intrigued about our topic, and a questionnaire was also distributed among the interested individuals. Out of these 45 people, 15 of them were men including with babies, 19 of them were going to have babies and 11 women were also intrigued with our research based questionnaire.

Number of questions was included in our survey questionnaire. These questions were as follows:

             Firstly, people were asked about what were their thoughts before the birth of their baby regarding breastfeeding? And how much your thoughts have changed?

             Fathers were asked that if they provide support to their partners to make breastfeeding comfortable for them or not?

             Did they receive any information regarding breastfeeding before and after birth of the baby?

             Was the information proved to be useful for you or not?

             In any way your perspective has changed after receiving sufficient amount of information?

             Do you observe other men, supporting their wives in public, to promote breastfeeding?

             What will be your advice regarding promoting the process of breastfeeding, particularly, what role men should play in this promotion?


8.            DATA ANALYSIS:

According to the sample data that we have obtained, number of people who expressed their views in a positive manner regarding breastfeeding was, before birth of their baby was only 14, including both fathers and to-be fathers. The problems that we have observed according to different views that we have obtained from them included, most of the people think that breastfeeding is an activity that is specified to women only, and men do not have to play any part to support this activity. People have been explaining their issues regarding breastfeeding that, men belonging to different regions of Gujar Khan, were highly engaged and involved in earning their bread and butter that they hardly find any time to support their wives with this activity. Although, proper sessions and classes have been provided to these individuals who participated in our survey, about importance of breastfeeding and how they can support their wives to make it easier for them, but our cultural norms and society values have also played a great role in inhibiting them from getting themselves engaged with these basic and natural activities related to a child raising and safe and sound growth of their baby.



The results that we have concluded from our survey results, sample data and sample collection, and data analysis process, we have come to a conclusion that majority of the fathers not only lack in proper provision of education and guidance regarding their support towards breastfeeding, but also they do not seem interested to educate themselves as well. When we were observing the designated participants and individuals, to perform analysis about our topic, fathers did not show any interest in these activities, and also when they were offered to attend our classes and sessions in which they will be getting complete and thorough education, and a detailed discussion over this issue will be made, in which they may openly ask any questions about queries and questions that they have in their minds. But still, some of these men showed great interest as they wanted to educate themselves, while some of them were not even eager to be a part of this activity. (Brown A 2014)

Thus, in order to overcome these problems, we must ensure that fathers must affectively participate in maternal activities, they should gain knowledge, and provide emotional and practical support to their wives. It is also a major responsibility of healthcare providers and governmental influencers, that certain campaigns and seminars must be conducted, by the government, which must be free of cost so that greater number of fathers will be interested to attend these seminars, and gain knowledge from professional and valuable educators. Fathers must also a play very important role in decision making of breastfeeding process, and they should equally participate in each maternal activity, so that a better future and positive outcomes will be ensured and it will ultimately lead to betterment of our children’s future and their safe and sound health. (Nayeri. F 2015)

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