Q The report is about Gender Identity Development, relative roles of biological, social and cultural influence on gender Home, - Gender Identity Development Gender Identity Development Introduction The process by which an adolescent develops its unique and individual identity is known as the gender identity development. In particular in particular with this process the individual consider themselves as masculine or feminine or a combination of two. In this context it is important to note that gender refers to a broad set of qualities such as personal attributes, social roles, customs, behavior, and activity which distinguish between the femininity and masculinity. Overview of this presentation Here is an overview of this presentation which includes: ? Introduction ? History of study of gender ? Ways in which the studies are performed ? The psychological theories associated with the gender development studies ? Its role: mainly in terms of stereotyping and discrimination ? Discussion of the scientific evidences for gender difference ? Forecasting the landscape for gender development ? Future prospective and conclusion ? References used in this presentation The history of the study of gender Back in history, the study begins with the differences in social and biological structure of muscularity and femininity. However the forerunner history is the women's history which hurted by 1960. This includes the study of gender and cultural process. The first part is how men in early generation understood themselves as men. The second part focused on women's scholarship, their upliftment, differences in the social custom, and factors including races are classes, during 1990s. Ways in which gender is studied This area is considered as an interdisciplinary study which is attributed to categories of analysis represented by gender and the gender identity: The gender study of gender includes following areas: Women's studies which is concerned with feminism politics, social role of women cultural attributes Men's studies include the history analysis of gender dominated society, the differences in customs, and the contribution to the progress of mankind Queer studies which includes the sexual diversity focusing on gay, lesbian, transgender, intersex people and culture, and bisexual. Psychological theories about gender development Five important theories of gender development are: Psychodynamic - This theory found the role of family especially the mother in shaping the individual gender identity. Symbolic interactionism - This theory is based on communication which is the difference of how to accept and deliver speech among boys and girls. Social learning - The outward motivational factors which approves or disapprove the behaviour among boys and girls, is known as social learning theory. Cognitive learning - This theory is based on punishment and external rewards that helps the child to develop identity of their gender by own. Standpoint - This theory dictates the importance of understanding the gender Roles of biological, social and cultural influence on gender: Stereotyping and discrimination Biological difference makes it easier to distinguish between male and female. From biological point of view, intersex individual is the one born with both male and female sex organs. Stereotype and social stigma include: women as weak sex, they stay at home and raise family, while men go out for work. This also forms discrimination based on social feedback, way of interaction, and job preferences given to individuals. Present day society include all gender as successful scientist, lawyers, business owners, doctors, and engineers which demonstrate the ability of his or her gender. Scientific evidence for gender difference: School and work, relationships and sexuality, health and wellness, stress, coping, and psychopathology Scientific evidence for difference: - Girls are comparative weaker and reserved during “period days”. - Dress code at school and work for male and female makes them different. At other social places, for example in parties and beaches, dress code are difference for male and females. - Giordano (2015) shows that female are more sensitive, committed, and emotional than males when it comes to relationships. - Health care professionals need to be more careful while communicating, touching, and accessing females, owning to cultural attributes. - Specific health complications such as menopause, C-section complication are common among female, while prostrate cancer is only appearing among males. - While research have shown that there is moderate to no difference among male and female when observed for coping and psychopathology issues. Forecast landscape for gender development at work and home At work and home, following landscape are being observed: - Parents are nowadays raising boys and girls equally. - Education and job scope are uniform and homogenous in majority of places. In several nations (especially in Asia), there exist reservation for women, to uplift their status. - Females are provided pregnancy leave, to overcome the biological barrier, while coping at work. - The social acceptance for women, their role in family and interaction mechanism at society is nowadays changing, towards positive direction. Forecast landscape for gender development in political arenas Low population of women in policial decision making position reflect inequalities since ages. This is infact reflective in oldest democracies for example of France and US. - Project of women world leaders – established in 1997 have worked towards engagement of women for their progress and change attitude against the existing stereotypes and discrimination. - Since 2010, the UN members have increased their women share by 63%. Future perspectives Feminist empiricism – They have radical future. They argues on “context of discovery”, “context of justification”, and “goodness”. Issues across culture to consider for reform – Includes: Parenting, abortion, violence against women, and marriage issues. Feminist theorizing – admit biology which is constrained with essentialism. Ideology of power have to be defined equally in society. Other factors that also needs to be considered - Poverty, health aspects, employability, and equal upbringing in family to equalize gender in society.