The report is illustrative of various decision making process. It is helpful in taking different forms of data analysis.


The report is based on decision making processes in Torrens University workspace. Decision making process is undertaken at all levels of the organisation. The decision making process is initiated through a qualitative or quantitative analysis. Various decision making tools and models are employed in order to derive a positive outcome. the report consists of a reflective study of the decision making process on an individual and at the team level followed by a detailed analysis of the different decision making tools and technologies along with a supportive literature review to provide sufficient information. The report also involves the implementation and the outcomes of three different decision making tools on different challenges faced in an organisation. A summarised conclusion has been marked at the end of the report to facilitate better understanding of the topic.
Decision making is the critical part of any business process irrespective of its size. The need of decision is seen at every possible level and in every little situation. In order to make the adequate decision by analysing the collected data could be attained in the following ways:
• Identification of the goals:
The vision and the mission of the involved organization are highlighted that can be taken by involving the managers and the stakeholders in the organization.
• Gathering the relevant information:
This step of analysing the situation comprises of identifying the course of action, and the alternatives.
• Evaluation of the available options:
The weight age of available option is done so that best possible options are kept for making the choice.
• Choosing the right option from the available alternatives:
The best suitable option is chosen from the analysed option for making a sound choice.
• Evaluation of the decision:
The decision is than evaluated after the implementation of the chosen decision making option for attaining the defined goals.
Implementation of data analytics to detect the influence of evidence in decision making
Data Analytics is the new emerging keystone that on implementation is effective in supporting the strategic business decision making. It enables the businesses that assists in making consumer oriented marketing decisions. These decisions are helpful and addressing in key operational inefficiencies. The advent of data analytics in making strategic decisions is changing the people perception about the importance of data. These data analytics are helpful in exploring the insights of the organization along with the new business territories. It can be used to achieve the following benefits:
• Evaluation made on consumer patterns
• Utilization of data in driving the performance
• Manages risk through data assessment
Implementation of visualization and data analytics in decision making
Visualization and the analytics play the crucial role in decision making. Data being the critical source for identifying the competitive advantage and data is than analysed for making better decisions. A collaborative approach of data visualization and data analytics is followed in order to formulate an effective data strategy. Both are the different approaches that provide the sense of the data and on implementation of relevant metrics together would assist in better decision making process. They together work as forecasting and projection method and presents the data potentially on the visual interfaces. There is considerable overlap exists amongst the visualization and data analytics but data analytics is a technique that deals with data at the much deeper level that is not available in visualization. Torrens University utilises a combination effect of business analytics and visualization to take effective decisions. They can prepare visual aids to represent their data to their sponsors and trustees. The data analytics tool is responsible for providing valid data and information which is collected on the issue. Different business analytical tools help in determining deep rooted knowledge on the issue and finds solutions for resolving them. They also take the help of visualization to better detail the solution and provide alternatives to them (Hunink, 2001).
Application of decision-making tools
There are various decision making tools available in the market that on implementation supports the strategic planning. These tools are helpful in defining the company's goal. These tools assist business managers that aid in strategic planning and achieving the intended goals. These tools generate the results that form the basis for further planning. Below are some of the applications of decision making tools:
• Marketing Research
This is based upon collecting the data about the thought process of the consumers. It covers the customers' preferences, potential competitors and current state and size of the market. This is the crucial decision making tool in formulation of organizational goals and mission. Torrens University employs different decision-making tools to handle the internal as well as the external environment.
• Cost benefit analysis
This analytic tool is used for accessing the costs and the associated benefits with it. It determines the greatest net benefit. All the available options are checked across the net benefit they produce and the best possible option is implemented in the organization for the better results (Hickam, 2010).
• SWOT Analysis
This is the decision making tool that aids the business managers with identification of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and threats associated with the business process. It assists the managers in pre identification of the risks that can come across and mitigating them before they cause any threat to the organization. Also, this form of analysis warned the officials against the company's competitors. The workspace of the Torrens University is very dynamic and requires continuous monitoring and delegation. Implementation of the proper decision making tools in the organisation shall help in controlling difficult situations.
• Feasibility Analysis
This form of analysis is used for planning and evaluating whether the proposed project or intended goal whether the project would fetch the profits in near future or not.
Different outcomes of the different models
The above mentioned tools are implemented with the motive of different goals and are dependent upon the different sources of data. The analytics performed on the collected data liberates information that is used for forming up of targets, goals. It also makes the managers aware about the strengths and their weaknesses. The purpose of the implementation varies therefore their outcome varies when compare with each other results (O'Neill and Brabazon, 2019).
Literature review
Decision making is a rational thought process which is undertaken by the managers of every level in a company. The outcome of the decision making process is always expected to be according to the organisational goals and objectives. Rational decision making requires an individual to follow certain steps of decision making. There two main types of decision making methods- qualitative and quantitative methods. Some of the tools for the quantitative decision making process is: Grid Analysis, Cost Benefit analysis and Decision Trees. For qualitative analysis, the following tools can be used: six thinking hats, Star bursting and stepladder.
Quantitative decision making is used when the decision requires the implementation of any quantity based data. The three methods to derive quantitative decisions are:
• Grid Analysis: this method is used when the decision is relying on a number of criteria. In this method a grid is created by writing the factors or the criteria and the options on either axis. The factors are the expected outcomes which are expected from a decision and the options are the alternative methods which can be used in their space. The results of this method are calculated based on weighting the various factors against their alternatives. This method is helpful in analysing and treating each criterion fairly and equally. The visual presentation of the factors and the options also makes it easier to apprehend the information (Atashbar, Khademi and Pourkazemi, 2009).
• Cost/ Benefit analysis: the decisions derived by using this tool is based on its monetary or benefit analysis. This method is helpful in creating a balance between the expenses and the benefits. A simple methodical calculative technique is used to determine the expenses related to the decision. After calculating the expenses, the monetary benefits are calculated, and then the two calculated are compared with each other. The costs are calculated against the benefits and a payback time is calculated (the estimated time required to recover the expenses). This option is an advantage of this method as it helps the decision maker to estimate the validity of the decision. Optimistic data should not be used to calculate the costs otherwise the results might be misleading and inaccurate.
• Decision trees: this method outlines the every possible outcome and their alternatives; this process is quite similar to the grid analysis method as it visually represents the data. Each decision is mention on the decision tree with its alternative so when one technique fails several other are already present to replace it. Besides the graphical representation helps in better interpretation as well.
Qualitative decision making tools are used while pursuing a qualitative form of decision. Some of the qualitative decision making tools are:
• Six Thinking Hats: this method allows the decision maker to view the issues from six different perspectives. metaphorically the six coloured hats (white, red, black, blue, green and yellow) denotes different forms of perspectives such as factual, emotional, pessimistic, process, control, creativity and optimistic respectively.
• Star bursting: star bursting is a tool which is quite similar to a mind map, which is created by reasoning with the necessity of the decision to be made. The alternatives of the decisions are also discussed in this tool (Hunink, 2001).
Decision making styles
There exists four different ways that decision making styles can take up its form. It depends upon the concerned people practicing it at their work. These are as follows:
• Directive Approach: It is directly taken by the high level managers and do not take consents from the lower level team. It is highly based upon their own idea and knowledge.
• Analytical decision making approach: These are very careful decision makers in which all the available alternatives are taken into consideration before coming to some conclusion.
• Behavioural decision making approach: These are achieved through consistent meetings and discussions with the entire subordinates' team. All the inputs are taken into consideration and the conflicts are resolved before coming to conclusion.
• Conceptual Decision making Approach: The conceptual based learning is involved in formation of decision making. They are generally made with the perspective of long run (Campbell et al., 2018).
Decision making tools and their advantages
Below are the advantages that one could entail to by the use of decision making tools:
• It aids in taking the solid decision.
• Decision making become more consistent and clear in its scope.
• Provides comfort for the lower as well as middle level management.
• It aids in taking the impulsive decisions (Power et al., 2018).
Future prospect of the decision making tools
Seeing the benefits of decision making tools, one could see the bright scope for decision making tools in the near future. They will be in great demand and in practice with the managers for taking the strategic decisions. Its precision and validity has enhanced the scope of decision making tools (Vriens and Achterbergh, 2013).
To conclude, report is efficient in highlighting the significance of decision making tools. They serve the basis for formulation of goals and targets of the company. It assists managers in implementing the strategic decision with the perspective of gaining benefits in the long run. The report also states the various decision making tools that are efficient in taking the appropriate targets.

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