Assignment is about the Change in society as a a group of individuals living from the Stone Age to the Agricultural Age


A society is a group of individuals living together and bound together by common aims and objectives. As the members of the society are subject to change right throughout, the society will be subject to change.Eg. Change in society from the Stone Age to the Agricultural Age.

What is social change?

_a change which takes place in values, ethics, customs, traditions, attitudes, language, dresses andin any other aspect or in all aspects in the individuals who are members of the society.

_Any change in a society or alterations in the way people live their lives.

_An alteration in the social order of a society which may include changes in the nature of social institutions, social behaviours or social relations.

_May refer to the notion of social progress or socio-cultural evolution, the philosophical idea that society moves forward by dialectical or evolutionary means.

 _A paradigmatic change in the socio-economic structure,for instance a shift away from Feudalism towards Capitalism

_A social revolution Eg. Socialist Revolution presented in Marxism

_A change in social structure, the nature of society, the social institutions, the social behavior or the social relations of a society, community of people and so on.

  _Achange in the social order- when behavior patterns change in large numbers and their change is visible and sustained, once there is deviance from culturally inherited values, rebellion against the established system may result in a change in the social order.

Nature of social change 

It is rather difficult to identify the beginning and the end. All social changes cannot be considered as advantageous to society Eg. Period of Hitler’s rule in Germany. But the Revolutions which took place in Soviet Russia and the Republic of China may be considered as advantageous to those societies.

Sources of social change

Social change comes from two sources. 1) Random or Uniquefactors like climate, weather or the presence of specific groups of people            2) Systematic factors like successful development

Reasons for social change

Cultural factors Eg. Contact with other cultures,   Immigration and assimilation, political factors, (Invasions and Revolutions,) economic factors(Industrialization leading to urbanization.)

Process of social change

Changes take place in living patterns as a result of the movement from country to town. (Urbanization leading to social disintegration) extendedfamily being transformed into anuclear family, villagesbecoming isolated

Durkeim stressed the sense of normalness- “anomie” of urban life-styles. Problems have cropped up in urban life-styles.Social isolation ,loneliness among crowds in extreme form leading to suicide; more crime and violence because of a reduced common identity ,fewer shared standards, more crowding more opportunities ;less certainty of detection, greater competition for status symbols, more pollution ,more noise; relationships tend to be superficial; less ‘”intergenerational authority    -    ”youth becoming less ready to accord respect to their elders ;social disorganizations following rapid urbanizations leading to prostitution, drunkenness etc.

‘Drip –effect,’ –constant repetition tends to familiarize us with the idea that certain types of behavior perhaps violent or promiscuous are normal ;.International influence-Impact of immigration, mass-media making cultural comparisons possible. Products of multinational companies, Drug taking, Terrorism,Violence

Education and Social Change

-Education helps to make the social changes beneficial to society. Education will help to act as a mode of conflict resolution that may arise among members of society dueto  social changes taking place.Eg. Conflicts arise among elder generations who venerate old traditions and the young generation who venerate only the modern ideas. This type of imbalance could be rectified through education.

Relationship  between Education and Social Change are twofold.

1) Education changes according to social change 2) Social changes take place through education.

1) Education changes according to social change from birth we are formed by the society. Schools make us understand the norms, customs and traditions on which the society is based; the skills and the attitudes as how to adjust to them- all these are given by the school .As such school has to be developed in order to cater to aspirations of the society.As school is a social model, all changes taking place in society should be felt by the school .Therefore according to such social changes, changes in the Curriculum, Assessment   Methods,L/T Methods, Quality Inputs take place.They are revised from time to timeEg.1997Education Reforms through which an attempt was made to change education according to social changes and the needs thus arising out of such social changes...

With rapid social changes taking place,process of education has to be prepared to face such changes.Eg. 1966 Kotari Commission of India stated that Education has to be used as the main tool in social,economic and political changes.As such Education has to be related to all plans regarding long term aspirations of a country and also in finding solutions to the short term problems that may arise.

Economic changes which have taken place have led tosocial changes.Eg. About 30 to 40 years ago the demand for professions considered to be very important in societyhas decreased while professions in the field of new technology have become very important now.Eg. With the Open economy of Sri Lanka and the impact of globalization, efforts have been made to address through education the problems thus created. During the Colonial era in Sri Lanka there was a trend towards engagement inWhite Collar jobs.The curriculum was developed to cater to this demand. But later since independence Sri Lanka realizing the mismatch between education and employment many educational reforms wereimplemented.Eg.  1972 Education Reforms.

October Revolution in Russia entrusted the task of building up a new society with education Aim of education was to develop a “Great Communist”. The curriculum was developed accordingly.

In Democratic countries it is aspired to achieve the welfare of the society through education.Eg. Declaration of Education as a Human Right widened the opportunities to education.Countries had tried to eradicate or minimize social disparities through education.

.As there are continuous social changes taking place, the need to change education takes place.Margret Mead “What we have to do is to prepare individuals appropriate for a future not known to us.Therefore education has not only to think and      act according to the current situation but also to the future situation.”

Also society may undergo rapid changes and become imbalanced. As such it is the duty of Education to rectify this imbalance

2] Social Changes take place according toEducation

Through education it is aspired to transmit culture and traditional skills to its young generation. But when it takes place, culture is being refined by education. Education therefore has to act according to social changes, Eg. Kotari Commission of India {1961-1966} used educationas the major tool in introducing social changes in the country. The Commission believed that education should be used as a tool to increase production, strengthen social integrity and inculcate social norms and values.

In Soviet Russia after the Cultural Revolution the task of doing away with the value system prevalent in the Ancient Feudal Society and introducing a new value system to the new Socialist Society was entrusted with the school.

Olive Bank in 1968 showed how the task of improving and modernizing technological aspects of a society has been entrusted with the system of education.He showed how education could be used to change attitudes to create a path towards modernization and in minimizing the inability to adjust to changing situations.

Development of education in a country on the other hand depend on the economic development of a country .As such countries invest a large capital on education Eg. Japan was modernized through education.

Manny efforts have been made in Sri Lanka to achieve social changes through education.

 Eg. 1964- An effort was made to develop life skills through the White Paper.

1972-Education Reforms- Addition of Pre-Vocational subject into the curriculum.

1997- Education Reforms-Introduction of a Competency based education system. Since 1997    Introduction of manynew programmes of study in Universities to meet the needs of the society

1) Discuss and analyses the following ideas.

a) That education should be according to social change. B} That social changes could be made through education.

2} Clarify under the following topics how educational changes took place through    social changes in Sri Lanka a} Changes in the school structure b} Changes in the Curriculum and the L/T Methods’} Changes in the Administration

3} explain the problems that the teachers may have to face when educational changes according to social changes are implemented in the school. 

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