Q This study would provide information about the sustainable forms of building technique and its application to primary Home, - Report on School Building Introduction Construction has remained as one of the notable industries where innovation andsustainabilityhave been a key concern. The construction industry has been revolutionizedwith the growth of building design and systems. The main justification is the demand of energy efficient buildings and implementation of innovation in construction field.It has also reduced the workload and providefeasible recommendation forconstructionactivities(Kamali & Hewage, 2017). Themodular building technology is the best method which can be used for the design of the new primary school. Its work systemtends to decrease the length of the project and increase the efficiency of building materials. It is an innovative design which tends to complete buildings in separate parts. The concept of modular buildings would be analyzed for primary school. Information related to the merits of this construction method would be presented in logical forms, and environmental issues would be critically analyzed in the report. The report will also analyze the environmental issues related to the construction industry. Body Evidence-based critical analysis The design of the school building is based on innovative construction technology which would reduce the environmental issues and provide a sustainable approach to the construction process. Modular building help to provide a detailed account of the problem as the design and phases of construction are better owing to the traditional form of construction(Rahman, 2013). The modular building method is the best innovation which can be applied for construction of the primary school.This is because of the innovative design and system details of the construction method.The facility is based on primary school, andthe main target would be school children. Modular buildings are based on prefabricated structures which are made on different sites as compared to the proposed project. It is a constructionmethod whichhelps to deliver the product in less time of frames. In this method environment as well,unsuitability is managedwith the reduce cost of construction(Boyd, 2012). Innovative construction technology Modular buildings design and system would be effective for the primary school because the on-site preparation would not require additional environmental issues with the school building. Thedesign of this construction method tends to place each part of the building is separatecompartments. The innovative concept is different from the traditional style of buildings. Thisisbecause, ina conventional form, school building would be made in steps(Hwang, 2018). The traditionalmethodology would affect the surrounding environment of the school and would affect the sustainability of construction. Modular buildings are used for long-termprojects. This is critical in school building because the construction technology is a perfect fit for the school’sdesign and structures.It can help to reduce the needs of children in a rural and urbansetting and decrease the issueof carbon emissions. The buildings made from innovative construction approach are sustainable and tend to withstand harsh weather conditions.In contrast to the conventional construction methodologies, less sustainability is present for the buildings(Sychev & Sharipova, 2015).This also justifies the selection of modular buildings for the offsite construction process. The process of modular building is based on leanmanufacturing. This method is primarily used in buildings where cost and environment tend to remain a serious concern for project viability and feasibility(Baghchesaraei, 2015). The use of lean manufacturing technology is a sign of innovation where buildings are made in a controlled setting environment. The concept of sustainability tends to account for the present technologies used for the school building. The process also integrates the modules of building in computer systems. All the component of buildings is integrated into assembly lines where the specification of the building would be followed for each part of the design.This includes the construction of frames as the addition of material to doors and windows(Mandicak & Mackova, 2017). In modular building half of the construction phase is completed in a controlled environment. This is the additional benefit forthe building where smaller structures are integrated into a larger structure.The site of primary school and modular buildings tend to provide a sustainable recommendation for building design.The efficiencyofthe project is achieved with the help of innovation and less loses present as compared to the conventional construction phase(Gosling, 2016). Analyzing the choice of modular building all the elements of innovative practices have been adopted for the design of energy efficient building. The design and innovation of modular building practices help to provide a solid edge over traditional construction activities. The main difference is present on the use of tools and technology which would be applied for the offsite fabrication of primary school building(Mostafa, 2016). Relative merits over traditional technology of construction Modular buildings have benefits over the traditional methods of construction.This is because the area of building and standards of constrictorremains the same forthe whole building. The main difference is present in the offsitefabrication mechanism(Russell-Smith, 2015).The choice ofthe school building would be optimal for the innovative construction technology because the size andlayoutofconstruction small and building can be delivered in fewer days as compared to the traditional process which tends to account for higher time and delays in the project. One of the relative merits for the construction is based on the significance of the designstages.The modular technology of construction has several stages present for building a primary school building. Theinnovation for construction is carried out with the help of computer-aided system and three-dimensionprintings.All of theseresearch tools tend to increase the success of construction(Baghchesaraei, 2015).The research tool makes an initialdesign of the onsite building.This includes the key requirement of people and environmentalconsideration. Research states that first building materials are collected in the off-site location. This includes the storage of building material aswell asceilings.The next stage is based on building manufacture where separate parts are built in differentvicinity. Final stage combines all the pieces of building ina single unit(Gosling, 2016). This innovative technique is preferable for the school building because it helps to provide cost reduction which cannot be achieved with the help of traditional construction methodologies. Traditionalconstructiondoes not rely onsoftware for designing a building.It raises the cost of the project and reduces the suitability of buildings. The concept of sustainable buildings is also affected by traditional approaches. The introduction of modular technology tends to provide a benefit where all the initial activities are planned before execution. The buildings which are based on modular technique tend to provide a speed for construction(Kamali & Hewage, 2017).It is a potential element for increasing sustainability inthe constructionindustry. The main reason for this claim is the simultaneous form of constitution carried out with the objectivities of buildings. It also helps to reduce about half ofthe consumption of labor.The modular design also incorporates the services of engineering tools and techniques which strengthen the area of innovation and sustainability. During the process of offsite construction brings are erected for ceiling and floors. Conventional construction mechanism does not provideleverage for simulating the initial form of construction and use of innovation. It also helps to remove issues of energy for constructionschemes. Modulardesign is also independent for the weather condition(Mandicak & Mackova, 2017). This is one of the critical benefitspresents in technology as compared to the traditional construction process. The benefit of modular buildings can be evaluated for the UK construction industry. This is because numerous projects and buildings are prefabricated on the base of design and innovation. This has helped the construction industry to shift toward the remote location. Modular buildings can be built for a variety of small school andeducational centers. The modular building also provides a prominent selection of materials which are cheap and have low waste. One of the key sustainabilityissues was to regard with the water and sanitationfacilities(Mandicak & Mackova, 2017). The traditional construction method of brick and mortar have an issue regarding the feasibility and length of the project. This method tends to raise new issues for construction on the base of the environment and climate. Change in weather effects the construction phases.(Mostafa, 2016) Modular construction technology is important in terms of the modern construction phase because it reduces the cost of the overall project andprovides innovate design to fabricate building in a separate compartment. Traditional building practices tend to impact on flexibility and quality of buildings. This is because modular buildings reduce the requirement of raw materials and help to increase flexibility in building instruction.The quality factor is not determined on the base inspection and services. Modularbuildings tend to implement all the requirements for buildings which are required for installation. This includes renewable energy sources aswell as as-as the use of software’s(Rahman, 2013).Environmentaland Sustainability Issues The construction industry is accounted for various environmental and sustainability issues.One of the prominent areas is based on the effect of climate from constructionactivities.The site where constructionactivities are carried out in higher number tend to affect the ecosystem and raises the concerns of smog elements(Russell-Smith, 2015).Another area of focus is based on carbon emission from constructionactivities.The traditional form of construction also poses a threat to water and the drainage system which is an important element of the environment. The area of biodiversity and waste reduction also affects the continuity of the constructionindustry The main area is to proposemodular buildings for the construction of a new primary school.The technique tends to remove all the environmental issues because the entire construction process carried out in the indoor vicinity and there are no chances present for environment issues regarding pollution as well as the water system. In traditional constructionoperations, environmental issues are present for the building site(Baghchesaraei, 2015). This effect directly on people as rising temperatures and increase constructionactivities change the whole course of the ecosystem. Sustainability is related to the consumption of energy for buildinginfrastructure and directlyraising the level of pollution of the inhabitants. Modular buildings tend to solve this issuebecause all the construction activities are sustainable.It helps to reduce the project length and account for simultaneous activities of construction(Rahman, 2013).Useofenergyin the modular building is quantified with the help of software and buildings design. Renewable energy sources are preferred for building construction(Sychev & Sharipova, 2015). This helps to increase the energy efficiency of building modulardesign and would be recommended to new school buildings. One of the key areas of sustainability is the use of construction material for industry. This raises concerns for suitability as the use of concretematerialsto tend to affect the nature of climate and buildingdesign. The modular building represents an important sustainable resolution for the school building. This is because achieving targets for energy and carrying out indoor construction tends to reduce the negative advantage for the environment. Modular buildings are suitable for the project as they can install in less amount of time and have less maintenance as compared to the traditional forms of construction phases(Sychev & Sharipova, 2015).The modular buildingdesign is environmentally friendly as it helps to reduce unwanted waste of construction product and follow a suitablemethod for offsite built structures.The application of controlled environment has an advantage for the construction building, and it is widely used in UK industry to build energy efficient and sustainablebuildings(Boyd, 2012). The construction industry of UK has shown issues for the environment and sustainability.The burning of fossil fuels, as well as pollutants of the building materials, have raised,the issues related to the effects of climate. Water and sanitationmanagement remains one of the importantconsiderations of the industry. The concept of Modular buildings has got a significant attraction in many school buildings(Hwang, 2018). Companies have adopted modular buildings to design the scheme of primary schools.Linwood school of UK is a perfect example where modular buildings concept was applied to remove environment and sustainability issues. Research into sustainable and innovative construction methods Sustainable and innovative construction methods were researched for the modular building, and it helped to provide examples of three-dimensionprinting and digital building design.It was important to select a modular design of construction for school buildings because the attributes of traditional construction tend to reduce the energy efficiency and design of buildings(Mostafa, 2016).Modular building is also sustainable andreduces the environmental issues for the construction industry. Conclusion This report aims to explain the concept of modular buildings for the construction of primary school buildings. The choice of buildings is based on the innovation and sustainable construction techniques which aim to increase the quality of service and reduce the negative issues for the environment as well construction industry. The report provides brief knowledge for the construction area and critically analyzed the field on the base of industry and personal experiences.Modular systems are a great alternative to traditionalconstruction phases.This is because of the environment-friendly construction phases and multiple advantages toon-site construction.The report also analyzesdesign and skills related to the modular building concept and applied all the practical knowledge for the school buildings. It was found that the use of engineering software’s and techniques tend to increase the value of building and it is also a requirement for the present construction industry. One of the important areas of the report was to analyze the present construction strategy on the base of traditional construction phases. This was carried out bycritical evaluation the system of modular building and prosing advantages toon-site construction process. Recommendation • It is recommended that modular buildings should be used for construction. This concept saves times and provide innovation for construction. • It is also recommended that environmental issues should be reduce for the construction activity. • Efficiency school buildings should be introduced and proper management of waste materials should be carried out.