Assignment explains about the negotiation process including preparation, information exchange, bargaining & conclusion

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The structure of American negotiator is very complicated, since it is a combination of four different professional perspectives. These professional perspectives includes i) businessperson's point of view of securing a strong result out of a negotiation, ii) attitude of either take it or leave it, iii) concern of a lawyer having careful, binding and careful commitments, and iv) moralizer view of self-worth, and inclination towards advocacy. The negotiating behavior of American government negotiator is highly influenced by the nature of the existing political as well as bureaucratic system (Grabowska, &Kozina, 2016). It has strong interagency officials paid for supporting the government, whose power is considered as a combination of public opinion, congressional influence and the interest of private sector. Thus, it is often observed that the American government negotiator usually get pressurized for increasing the call or demand for negotiating a deal which is already reached to the foreign competitors. This feature of shifting the goalposts or the motive of the negotiation is an important characteristic of the American government diplomacy (Steele, &Beasor, 2017). According to research, it is observed that the US government official's negotiating behavior depends on the deep uncertainty of the negotiation itself. However, legalistic and businesslike instincts make them to sit and resolve the issue for negotiation with confidence and mutual benefits of the deal for both the parties. On contrary, hegemonic and moralistic instincts make the US officials tends to make them reluctant to negotiate, especially if the behavior or belief of opposite party went against them. It can be said that the above described mind-set of American officials varies from administration to administration and negotiation to negotiation. 

Thus the negotiation teams needs to be aware of the background details of the US officials which can make them to become reasonable with calculative queries. Secondly, they should set a goal and plan for proper foundational direction of the negotiation. Third, the negotiation team should go with full confidence as it infuses instant negotiating power. Fourth, the negotiation team should be comprised members having sufficient practice and experience. Finally, the members should be well aware of the object cost for the product and the number of people negotiated in similar situations (Islam, & Susskind, 2018). 


Before entering into any negotiation, the team members of the negotiating party should have done proper homework about their product. All the possible answers to the questions or objections regarding the product (related to quality or price) which can be asked during the negotiation session should be prepared prior to the negotiation. In a negotiation, it is often seen that the product or service is compared with other similar type produced by their competitors. In that situation, the team members should have sufficient information regarding the unique selling point (USP) of the product which makes it different and better from the rest. One of the major USP of the GSP guided equipment produced by our company is that it produces quality product which is certified by the ISO and are approved for use in cars. The company's core competency lies within its ability for creating GPS equipment with innovation which is useful for the growing market (Vahidov, Saade, & Yu, 2017). It is one of the leading GPS manufacturer company providing diverse varieties of navigation technologies for the cars. We believe in constantly developing new products and services to our clients to avail the comfort in the present time. Our company's products are produced in-house which further reduces the risk of any mishaps and also increase the quality of the product. Second, the company believes in providing effective after sales service with excellent customer service in the areas like warranties service, technical support and repairing services (Kennedy, 2017).

For every negotiation session, the team members should be well prepared and have shared the common knowledge with other. There should not be any communication gap between the team members or else this would lead to serious trouble during negotiation session (Erhard, Jensen, &Zaffron, 2016). The essential steps that should be incorporated by my team members while opening the negotiation session includes:

Preparation: this process starts with the determination of better negotiation strategy on the basis of potential collaborative situation. Then the members should spend their time on researching data, analyzing information, and recognizing their positions and interests. Then there is need to identify and consider the type of relationship he/she wants to build with the members of Government officials (Svanberg, Öhman, &Neidermeyer, 2018). 

Information Exchange: this process starts while the company members began to engage the government officials during the negotiation. During this process, information such as interests, requirements, opposition, and the bargaining requirements are shared and explored. Here both the parties determine the trustworthiness, likeability, competency and the alignment of interest between them. In this stage if the assessment is positive enough, then we can move forward or else we have to implement the BATNA (Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement). 

Bargaining: this process usually occurs where there is a give and take. The negotiation should occur in such a way which satisfies the interests of both the parties for lasting and strong relationship. In this stage, the members should continue in creating value along with trade, and then eventually capture the value. 

Conclusion: this stage occurs when the agreement is reached and is to be finalized. It is noteworthy to examine whether the other team is follow the things which is promised during the negotiation. In this stage the common interests should be written down for record as a summary of the negotiation. It is important to thank the other party for their participation in negotiation even if it is not successful (Erhard, Jensen, &Zaffron, 2016). 

Execution: this is the stage where the agreement is implemented and is further prepared for the next opportunity of negotiation. The promises made during negotiation should be followed thoroughly for building trust and strong relationship. These negotiations processes not only helpful for a successful agreement but also opens door for future negotiation opportunity from same and other parties. 

There two negotiation gambits used for moving the negotiation in the right direction at each stage to achieve success:

Opening gambits: these gambits should be followed during the starting of the negotiation. It includes two basic tactics, viz., i) the flinch, and ii) feel or found technique.

? The flinch: this technique is the inborn quality of most of the negotiating members who hold the ability to show disappointment or panic or shock towards the presentation of the other side. As a result of this technique, the other side is forced automatically to change or adjust accordingly (Boddewyn, 2016). 

? Feel or found technique: this is a technique of acknowledging the feeling of other party member without paying any ground and also deny without being disagreeable. This tactic is an good example of formal communication skill, as it maintains good relationship and communicates yours intension. 

Middle gambits: it occurs during the middle of the negotiation for keep thing continuing. It also includes two basic tactics, viz., i) trade off ,ii) set aside.

? Trade off: this tactic states that a concession should not be given without getting a concession, for the purpose of keeping the negotiation balanced. If other side agrees to all the conditions of the opposite party, then this will nibble it to death. It is a universal truth that 'you have to pay for everything you get.'

? Set Aside: if the team members are deadlocked for a particular issue, then it should be kept aside. After reaching on the agreement for earlier issues, that issue can be resolved. It is because; by the end of the negotiation both the parties have developed the attitude to be flexible (Falkner, 2017). 

Being a negotiator, it is very important for me to write the contract in favor of my company rather than giving the government officials or any industry members to do. This is because, our company produces the product and knows the details of product like production cost, labor cost, advantages, disadvantages, further scope of improvement, profit margin required, and requisite services that can be provided further. While writing the contract, the negotiator should include both negotiated agreement as well as the future elements like sustainability of agreement and business relationship. These are the most important elements that should be incorporated within the contract and it is to be done cautiously and carefully. On the other hand, the negotiators from the government officials are least bother for this, as they are only interested for the product. If the contract will be prepared by the government officials, it will be only based on their profit and taking least interest in the company's requirement (Stark, & Flaherty, 2017). 

However, as a negotiator I am aware of the legal rules which govern the contract and able to prepare a contract accordingly. Under the basic rule of contract, each and every deal should comprise of an offer, a consideration and an acceptance. It is evident that each party should provide a valuable offer to reach the deal. Further the mirror image rule of contact, suggests that deal which the offeree is accepting should be a mirror image of that being offered by offeror. The contract should be prepared taking into considerations the steps viz., gathering internal data, analyzing data, viewing future plans, describing the expected result of negotiation and understanding the goal of opposite party (government negotiator).        

Body language like gestures and facial expression are also a part of communication and play important role in negotiation. It is one of the important tools in most of the business negotiations which is likely to be faced in most of the negotiation. Most of the people have a notion that negotiation includes only verbal and written communication, and then there is chance of missing important parts of the overall communication (Källkvist, &Hult, 2016). According to research, more than 70 percent of the communication in negotiation conferences is non-verbal. For a good and strong negotiator, it is very important to be aware of both verbal and non-verbal communication. The various body language which is need to be taken into account include:

Distance maintained while conversation: According to research, there are four basic types of distances for American negotiator, such as., social, public, personal, and intimate. For a business negotiation, social distance (1.30 to 3.0 meters) should be maintained. Most of the governments officials do not like to be close with other people while discussions, as they feel awkward and uncomfortable (Svanberg, Öhman, &Neidermeyer, 2018).

Physical contact and physical appearance: Often other people get message about the personality from the physical appearance of an individual. According to survey reports, physical attractive of a negotiator often leads to a successful deal. In United States, physical contact is often avoided during business deal. If accidentally someone touches somebody, then he/she should apologies like, sorry or excuse me. 

Eye contact: American perceives eye contact as sign of honesty, while shifting eye contact or lack of eye contact is considered as a sign of untruthfulness. Eye contact highly depends upon the type of culture or background of that individual. 

Gestures: gestures include the expressive movement of hand or head during the negotiation. Same gestures have different meanings based on different cultures of China, India, UK, US, Japan and many more. In UK and US, forefinger near lips is a symbol for silence. According to research, body language has 135 different expressions and gestures of body, face and head (Källkvist, &Hult, 2016). 

Postures: the way people carry themselves has a huge impact on the negotiation. For example, in US the people found it offensive when swinging foot during business negotiation. However, they value to be friendly and casual during such situations. However, having head held high, standing and sitting erect shows confidence, self-assurance, and energy (Brannen, Piekkari, &Tietze, 2017). This eventually gains positive attention of other and draws the agreement towards positive aspect.     

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