Q Case study is for Activities of Living and Care Plan to formulate a plan/goal to identify strategies Home, - Activities of Living and Care Plan Activities of Living and Care Plan Introduction The care of an individual is a highly essential concept that every individual needs to reckon with. The discussion provided below intends to cover the various aspects associated with AoL (Activities of Living) that comprises of multiple tasks required to be fulfilled by an individual or by their caretaker to make sure that they are able to lead a healthy life and live without any pain. This discussion is centred around the case study of an aged man named Mr. Jones who is suffering from C.diff. This disease has mostly considered as one of the deadliest diseases as it has also caused substantial amount of deaths among people and have ensured that they have huge restrictions on their diet and supplements. This discussion would lead to the understanding of various AoL aspects that would be considered beneficial for Mr. John and make reliable suggestions to make sure that the things he is being suffering from can be minimised to some extent. It is also essential that the proper orders of the doctors and the nurses are being followed to make sure that the patient is able to live a better and healthy life with the help from professional individuals. Further, the discussion would lead to the formation of Nursing Care Plan that would cover the issue of decreased appetite, the potential for an ulcer and electrolyte imbalance. The plan would result in the identification of proper symptoms and the remedies that would be considered appropriate to make sure that the problem has been minimised or has been eradicated. Discussion of Activities of Living (AoL’s) related to the Case Study – Eating and Drinking, Personal Cleansing and Dressing and Elimination The activities of living are mainly identified as the ones associated with the model of nursing, and this had been initiated by Roper, Logan and Tierney and is completely inclined towards the idea of ensuring that the basic daily activities of the people can be ensured by indicating the idea that they are able to encourage the perspective of proper patient care. The primary intention behind the idea of AoL is to make sure that the promotion of maximum independence is initiated and that the people can conduct their activities for taking proper care of an individual with the help of the intervention of a professional (Williams, 2017). It can also be stated that there are various factors that has the tendency to influence the key activities of the individual to make sure that they are able to live a better and healthy life. It can also be perfectly stated that these AoL;s allows an individual to overcome the chronic condition of their disease and make sure that they are able to live a better and prosperous life. The changes in the pattern of the activities mainly occur due to the changes in their condition and to what extent they have been following the schedule that has been provided to them. The key activities that must be addressed by a nurse for the proper treatment of a patient comprises of maintaining a safe environment, communication, breathing, eating and drinking, elimination, washing and dressing, controlling temperature, mobilisation, working and playing, expressing sexually, sleeping, death and dying (Jekel et al., 2015). Being an old individual and with a prominent C-diff disease, it can be stated that Mr. Jones is going through a tough time. This disease tenses the condition of the stomach and affects an individual’s eating habits. The discussion is centred around the proper care and treatment of Mr Jones. Here, the three AoL’s have been considered because they entirely focus on the dietary aspects and the necessary everyday routines to make sure that his condition is being soothed properly. In case of deadly disease like this, it is essential that proper care is being taken for the better health condition of Mr. Jones and to make sure that they are able to live their life in a proper manner. Since, C-diff has the tendency to ruin the appetite of an individual, it can be stated the eating and drinking, personal cleansing and dressing, and elimination would be the most impacted one in this case (Chu et al., 2015). Thus, there are certain aspects which needs to be reckoned properly to ensure that Mr. Jones is able to live a better life even after being diagnosed with a disease like that. As stated by (Abt, 2018), it has been identified that the older people are mainly affected with C-diff than the younger ones. It has also been considered that the people tend to ignore the factors that are highly essential to make sure that a person has been subjected to proper diagnosis and it has also been made mandatory that he/she is able to follow the proper routine that has been prescribed by their regular doctor. The three main areas of prevention that would allow to minimise the spread of C-diff comprise of restriction on the use of antibiotics, strict entry precautions while treating patients with diarrhoea and meticulous cleaning of the areas. This implies that Mr. Jones must have a different room for conducting his treatment to avoid spreading the disease to others. Substantial amount of alterations would be made to AoL’s to make sure that he is able to recover from the disease as soon as possible. Starting with eating and drinking, it is necessary that Mr, Jones drinks a lot of water as he would be dehydrated from the diarrhoea and regarding his eating habits, it will be changed from usual to plain food. Eating soup, rice, pasta and bread would be better for his health (Clostridium difficile, 2018). In terms of personal cleanliness and dressing, it is mandatory to use a hand wash or a sanitizer for the patient and for the carer as well to make sure that the contaminated objects or surfaces are being devoid of any kind of infection in case of any bare contact. In terms of elimination, it is mandatory that proper antibiotics have been consumed Mr. Jones to make sure that the diarrhoea has been treated and other complications have been avoided. Being his nurse, it is necessary to ensure that these stages have been properly considered and maintained to make sure that he has been treated properly. C-diff has the tendency to multiply dramatically and cause substantial amount of problems among the health of an individual. Being a nurse it is important that Mr. Jones is being provided with proper care. Some of the basic symptoms that have been identified in him that led to the identification of C-diff are mainly watery diarrhoea, appetite and weight loss, abdominal pain and 38°C temperature. In order to make sure that the extent of these difficulties can be lessen down a nurse can provide certain medications to make sure that the diarrhoea is prevented and the individual must be fed with light and nutritional food to make sure that he is able to get enough carbs and other necessary nutrients to gain some strength. As stated by Worsley (1998), the prevention of C-diff can be undertaken in various settings, it is just necessary to have substantial amount of knowledge regarding how the infection can be prevented. Since, Mr. Jones has been admitted to a medical ward so it is necessary that proper precautions are being taken to avoid the infection from spreading. Being subjected to diarrhoea it is essential that he is being provided with a bed and at the same time the use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics is to be encouraged to make sure that primary prevention routine has been orderly undertaken. At the same time, the patient needs to be educated about the disease to make sure that they are able to take some precautionary care on their own. Nursing Care Plan The most of the cases it is seen that the nurses perform in accordance with the requirement of the hour and save life of an ailing person. The protocols associated with the care giving system needs to be well adhered before taking any kind of steps. In the following segment the issues associated with decreased appetite, pressure ulcer and electrolyte imbalance will be analysed properly and the care plan will be given in order to minimise the issues. There are different measures to be taken into consideration and it is an important thing to remember that the factors associated with Mr. Jones might be different from the rest of the patients. There is a need of situation analysis and from the symptoms it is evident that the nurses should take proper steps to minimise the effects of loss of appetite. In order to minimise the issues, the patient has relied on the nurses and must follow the orders (Abt, 2018). It is important to have small meals and eat whenever he feels hungry. Mr Jones should eat often but in a lesser amount so that he can get used to of the habit of eating which he has lost in this C-diff period. Apart from that it is better to have family outings but his medical condition is not going to permit that in this situation. His favourite foods have to be presented to him but it is necessary to maintain a proper diet chart in order to keep the nutrient balance. He has abdominal pain, therefore, it is also important to make sure that he is getting adequate amount of fibres in his diet to digest that. Fibre is an appropriate nutrient to digest foods and avoid colon issues in future; hence it is a necessary thing (Hillman.upmc.com, 2018). As a nurse it is important to give him proper care during his diet and it is important to remember the mental condition of Mr. Jones. He is not going to accept the diet initially but the nurses have to make sure that he is getting all what he needs. Giving proper meal is necessary and sometimes nurses have to indulge him to take his food properly. Another issue is the pressure ulcer which is a basic thing that happens to people if they are continuously bedridden or in an immobile condition for a prolonged period (Sandlund et al., 2018). The issue is mainly visible among the people who are hospitalised for a long time and mainly the elderly people (Americannursetoday.com, 2018). The damaged skin in those areas where the person mainly feels pressure initiates the issue. The areas where the bones are closer to the skin is the most vulnerable place. As a nurse the responsibilities are huge and in case of Mr. Jones it is important to take proper care of that. Initially the nurses have to make sure that they are using lower bed heads to reposition the ailing person. They have to give skin dressing properly and provide the best kind of treatment related to the issue. The friction related issues need to be minimised as well in order to manage the matters. Applying creams to rejuvenate the skin surface timely is a part of their job. The skins have to be kept dry in order to avoid any kind of fungal infection. This is the most important thing to take care of in case of Mr. Jones because he is an elderly person and cannot move in his physical condition. If the pressure areas are getting changed then the nurses have to make sure that he is getting proper kind of treatment every time. Giving proper medication is an elementary step to follow and the nurses have to be assured of the facts that Mr. Jones is not going to accept that willingly. The mobility of the patient has to be improved as well in order to keep the muscles functional and in a proper state (Rch.org.au, 2018). Any hesitation related to timely mobility of Mr. Jones need to be minimised as well in order to avoid the issues. A timely skin inspection is needed. In case of the C-Diff patients it is a necessary thing to keep in mind that the issues are related with bacterial infection in the internal parts of the body; it is important to avoid such kind of contamination in the outer parts as well. There is another issue associated with Mr. Jones and that is watery diarrhoea and in this case he is facing electrolyte imbalance issues as well. This is a necessary fact to be taken into consideration and in the end it is going to be the best option to take care of. The majority of the cases it is seen that the issues associated with proper electrolyte imbalance lead towards different kind of physical disorders and it is a proven fact that the issues are easily negotiable. The major deficiency is seen in sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium (Nurseslabs, 2017). Apart from that there are many other things to be taken care of like Hypervolemia. The nurses have to give Mr Jones solutions according to the requirements. The patient needs to be given foods enriched with proper nutrients and there must be a balance between the elements. If too much nutrients are administered in the body then it is going to be result in an improper manner. Electrolyte solutions should be given to him in a prescribed manner and sometimes the necessary modifications has to be made as well in the solutions level. This is the process of attending a patient of C-diff and the nurses have to be adhered the process first in order to deal with the abnormalities. According to the protocol of nursing the sole priority of a nurse is to give proper care to the patient and following organisational protocols during giving their service. The nurses have to comply with the necessities of the situation and in accordance with that they have to take care of it. This is going to magnify the potential of the person and in the end it will be a good opportunity for them as well to enrich their experience. Conclusion The discussion presented above focused on the case study that is completely based on a C-diff patient named Mr. John. It has been identified with the help of the case study that he has been subjected to various symptoms of C-diff that ultimately led to the diagnosis up to confirmation. The discussion presented above led to the identification of the harmful implications of C-diff and highlighted the factor of how important it is to undertake appropriate measures for the prevention of the disease. It has also been identified that a nurse must be able to take proper care of the individual and make sure that he is able to live a better and healthy life. Meanwhile, the discussion also highlighted the major AoL’s of Mr. John that would be affected and ensured that the idea of alterations would be made as per the prescription of the doctor to make sure that the infection is being controlled properly. The importance of cleanliness has been cited here to make sure that the people take proper hygiene measures for better cleanliness program at a medical setting and for their own benefit as well. The nursing care plan on the other hand focused on the key symptoms that were being witnessed on Mr. Johns and the consequences that has also been considered as one of the primal aspects that needs to be handled with proper suggestions and medical expertise. Thus, it can be said that the essay provided substantial amount of idea regarding the use of various measures that must be undertaken to ensure and live up to the hype of treating C-diff.